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by the author 


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Home-made Windmills 

The Paper Pinwheel — The Pinion-wheel Windmill — To mount the 
Pinion-wheel — The Four-blade Windmill — To mount the Windmill — 
The Eight-blade Windmill — The Hub— The Eight Blades — The 
Shaft — The Tail — To pivot the Windmill — To operate a Toy Jump- 

Home-made Kites 

How to make a Malay — The Sticks — Framing the Sticks — Cover- 
ing the Framework — Attaching the Bridle — Flying-line — The Box- 
kite — The Kite Sticks — The Side Frames — Covering for the End 
Cells — Assembling the Kite — Attaching the Bridle — A Good Hand 
Kite-reel — A Body Kite-reel. 


A Home-made Model Aeroplane 

Accuracy in Model Construction — The Most Successful Type of 
Model — The Fuselage — The Thrust Bearings— The Bow Hooks — 
The Main Plane — The Elevator — The Fin — The Propellers — How- 
to prepare the Propellers — The Propeller Blank — The Propeller- 
shafts — The Motors — The Home-made Motor-winder — How the 
Egg-beater winds the Motors — Care in winding the Motors — Position 
to take for launching a Model. 


A Home-made Toy Motor-boat 

How operated — The Hull Bottom — The Sides — The Deck — The 
Propeller — The Propeller-shaft— The Bearing Plate — The Thrust 
Bearing — The Rubber-band Motor — To wind the Motor— How to 
elaborate upon the Design and Construction. 





Home-made Toy Water-motors 38 

A Varnish-can Water-motor — The Case — The Water- motor Wheel 
— The Eight Paddles — The Wheel Shaft — An Outlet— A Pulley- 
belt — Pulley-wheels — Connecting up the Water-motor — Another 
Water-motor — The Water-motor Wheel — The Wheel Supports — To 
mount the Wheel — The Pulley Wheel — The Water-motor Case. 


A Home-made Toy Railway 47 

The Trolley-line — Supports for Trolley-line — Power for Operating 

— Railway — Tracks — The Cars — A Gondola Car — A Street Car — 
Other Cars — Operation of the Railway — A Station. 


Home-made Toy Elevators 59 

A Toy Elevator that appears Magical in its Operation — Adapting 
Elevator to Toy Office Building — Floors — Partitions — The Elevator 
Car — The Elevator Guides — The Cables — The Counter-balance — 
The Smoke-stack — The Overhead Pulleys — How the Car operates 

— Ballast — To make the Car Rise — A Simple Control — Two Levers 

— An Outdoor Elevator — 'The Guide Supports — The Car — The 
Guides — The Counter-balance — The Lifting Cable — The Lowering 


Home-made Mechanical Toys .71 

The Simple Construction of Small Mechanical Toys — A Buzz-saw 
Whirligig — Operating the Whirligig — The Clog-dancer — A Toy 
Jumping-Jack — A Cricket-rattle — The Turtle Toy — To make the 
Turtle Crawl. 

Home-made Tops 79 

Top Spinning on the South Sea Islands — Clock Wheel Tops — A 
Rug-tack Top — A Spool Top — A Spinning Top Race-track — A 
Shoe-polish Can Top — A Spiral Top — 'A Merry-go-round Top — 
How the Top Spins — Horses and Riders — A Flag. 




Home-made Clockwork Toys 88 

The Necessary Materials — How to prepare the Clockwork — The 
Merry-go-round — The Standard — The Tent — The Tent-poles — The 
Horses — The Sleighs — The Shafts — The Girl Riders — The Boy 
Riders — The Platform — How to operate the Merry-go-round — Other 
Animals — A Miniature Ferris Wheel — The Standard — The Clock- 
work Motor — The Station Platform — The Wheel — Rims — Hubs — 
Spokes — Assembling the Wheel — The Cars — Axles — How to mount 
the Wheel — The Platform Steps — The "Flying Airships " — The 
Standard — The Mast — The Cars — Increasing the Speed of the 
Clockwork — An Electric Motor — An Automobile — The Frame — 
The Belt — Testing the Machine — The Cardboard Sides — The 
Wheels — The Mud-guards — The Lamps — The Steering-wheel — 
The Horn — The Brake — The Chauffeur — Painting the Machine — 
An Automobile Delivery Wagon — The Cardboard Sides — The Wheels 

— Other Portions — Painting the Wagon — A Clockwork Railway. 


Home-made Electrical Toys 117 

An Electro-magnet Derrick — The Electro-magnet — A Home-made 
Switch — The Derrick — The Windlass — -The Hoisting Cables — How 
the Derrick Works — A Toy Shocking Machine — The Induction-coil 

— The Primary-coil — The Secondary-coil — The Handles — An Inter- 
rupter — How the Interrupter Works — A Toy Electric Motor Truck — 
The Wheels — The Upper Shaft — The Belts — The Battery — The 
Bi-chromate Battery Fluid — Amalgamating a Zinc Pencil — The Seat 
and Canopy-top — The Seat-arms — The Steering-wheel — The Levers. 


A Home-made Toy Shooting Gallery 140 

The Framework — The Circular Target — The Animal Targets — 
The Card-shooting Pistol — How to number the Targets — ■ How to 
shoot at the Targets. 


A Home-made Doll-house 145 

The Building Material — The Floor Plans— The Partitions — The 
Elevator-shaft — The Side Walls — The Rear Wall — The Front Wall 

— The Windows— The Roof— The Chimney — An Elevator — The 
Car— The Guide-wires — The Pulleys — The Chain Cable — The 



Counter-balance — The Gable-ends — Spring-catches — The Stairway 

— Stringers — Treads and Risers — Newel-posts — Hand-rails — Bal- 
usters — The Front Steps — The Window Openings — The Window 
Glass — The Front and Rear Doors — The Outside Trimmings — The 
Interior Woodwork — Setting the Nail-heads — Painting. 


Furnishing the Home-made Doll-house ' 156 

The Walls and Ceiling — Hardwood Floors — ■ Carpets — Rugs — 
Window-shades — Lace Curtains — Portieres — Pictures — A Cosey- 
corner — Buying Furnishings — Making Furniture. 

A Home-made Toy Stable 160 

Dimensions of Stable — The First Story — -The Roof — The Gable- 
end — The Stall Partitions — The Feed-troughs — Windows — Ladder 
to Hay- loft — Feed-hoist — The Drop-front — A Stable Door — Paint- 
ing — If you prefer a Garage. 

A Home-made Doll Apartment Building ...... 165 

A New Idea in Doll-houses — How the Three Units are arranged to 
form a Three-story Building or Six-room Apartment — Building Mate- 
rial — The Room Dimensions — The First Story Unit — The Second 
Story Unit — -The Third Story Unit — The Door and Window Open- 
ings — The Bay Windows — The Joints between the Units — The Roof 
Construction — The Chimney — The Windows — The Front Door — 
The Inside Doorways — The Interior Trim — A Fireplace — 'Lighting 
Fixtures — Decorating — Painting the Outside Walls. 

Home-made Doll Furniture 174 

Metal Furniture — Miniature Mission Furniture — Material — Draw- 
ing the Patterns and Enlarging by Squares — The Chairs — The Settee 

— Tables — A Dining-room Table — A Sideboard — A Mirror — The 
Grandfather's Clock — Kitchen Furniture —I e Beds — The Dresser 

— A Wash-stand — Finishing. 

Other Cigar-box Furniture 187 

A Folding-bed — A Dresser — A Wardrobe. 

Figs. 287 and 288. An Auto Delivery- Wagon Built of Cigar-Boxes. 
(Seepage 192.) 



Wbodenand Cardboard Toys, 
Mechanical and Eleetr ical Toys 

By ANeelyHall 

Author of "The Boy Craftsman, 

"Handicraft for Handy Boys, 

'The handy Boy "Etc. 

With over three hundred illustrations andwork- 
bio-orawingrl w <ne author and Nor manP Hall 



Copyright, 1915, by 


Published, August, 191 5 

All rights reserved 





NottaooU $Tt88 

J. 8. Cushing Co. —Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood. Mass., U.S.A. 



Constructive ideas expel destructive ideas from the juvenile mind. 


Through the author's handicraft volumes, and magazine and 
newspaper articles, thousands of boys and girls who never real- 
ized they could make their own toys, have succeeded in con- 
structing models which would do credit to Santa Claus' master 

The success of this new home industry has suggested the 
need of a volume devoted entirely to toy-making, and in Home- 
made Toys for Girls and Boys the author has brought 
together a large number of the toy ideas from his former 
handicraft volumes, and from his articles published in the 
Ladies' Home Journal, Woman's Home Companion, Good House- 
keeping, the Boys' Magazine, and other publications, and he be- 
lieves that as collected and arranged the material will be found 
a veritable gold-mine of toy-making information. 

Go to any toy store and price the toys similar to those de- 
scribed within these covers, then estimate if you can how much 
the other toys you do not find would cost if manufactured, and 
you, will, discover, that one hundred dollars would not cover 
their value. > On£ splendid thing about these home-made toys 
is that the rreater part of them require little more than the 
pick-up matenul' found at home. Few boys and girls are given 
a one .hundred d'olJar -assortment of toys at a time, yet any one 
can own a collection of this value who is willing to spend the 
time necessary to follow the instructions given in this book. 
Probably, though, some of the toys will be wanted now, and 
the others one, two or three seasons hence, because, you see, 
the book is an all-the-year-round handy book with suggestions 
for every season. Some of the toys will be of especial interest 
to boys, yet girls who like what boys like will enjoy making 
them also. 


Home-made toys are generally longer lived than store toys 
because the boy or girl who expends a certain amount of effort 
producing gives them better care. Home-made toys have a 
greater value than boughten ones because there is as much 
fun making them as playing with them. Doing something 
interesting, getting satisfying results out of the work, putting 
an idea into tangible form, and having a toy to show of which 
it can be said, " I made this all myself," — these are the factors 
in toy-making so fascinating to boys and girls. 

It is no less a child's nature to want to do that which is 
most pleasing to him, than an adult's, so why not encourage 
this wholesome activity of toy-making to which the child takes 
as readily as a duck takes to water ? It trains the mind to 
think clearly, the hands to work cleverly, replaces destructive 
thoughts with constructive ideas, and, in making the boy or 
girl dependent upon himself or herself for toys, is invaluable 
in developing resourcefulness. 

Recognizing how easily the child's interest is attracted and 
held by anything of a building nature, toy manufacturers have 
placed scores of so-called " construction sets " upon the market, 
but, though excellent as these outfits are, the toys they form 
are merely assembled, not really mads/by'the/boy cr gfirij and 
much of the value of making is lost. - Exactly as good c models 
as those assembled with "construction se'cs^" cai< be made of 
pick-up materials, as chapters in this book'show. In fact, some 
of the models in the manufacturers' mstrvictiou pa.r.phlets — 
merry-go-rounds, Ferris wheels and swings — are almost iden- 
tical with home-made models devised long ago by the author 
for his readers. Furthermore, there are many, very many toys 
in Home-made Toys for Girls and Boys which are beyond 

the limited possibilities of "construction sets." 

A. N. H. 
Oak Park, Illinois, 
May 31, 1915. 




Home-made Cigar-box Toys 191 

Material — Cutting — An Express-wagon — A Cart — An Auto De- 
livery-wagon — A Jack-in-the-box — A Round-seated Chair — A Round 
Center- table — A Dining-table — A Square-seated Chair — A Doll's 
Cradle — Finishing the Cigar-box Wood. 


Home-made Spool and Cardboard Toys 196 

Material — A Baby Carriage — A Two-wheel Cart — A Toy Merry- 
go-round — A Teeter-board — A Doll Swing — A Sofa — A Chair — 
A Square Center-table — A Round Center-table. 


A Home-made Toy Mail-box 205 

Playing Postman — Material for Mail-box — The Sides, Ends, and 
Bottom of Box — The Top — The Letter-drop — The Collection-drop 

— Reinforcing the Corners — Covering the Box — A Collection Sched- 
ule Card — How to hang up the Mail-box — A Mail-bag — The Way to 
play Post-office. 


A Home-made Reflectoscope 210 

The Working Principle of the Reflectoscope — Material for making 
One — The Lens Opening — Ventilator Holes — The Interior Arrange- 
ment — A Hood for the Ventilators — If Oil Lamps are Used — If 
Electric Light is Used — How to mount the Lens — Puttying Cracks 

— Painting the Inside of the Box — The Back Boards — The Picture 
Holder — How the Lens reverses Pictures — Adjustments. 

Index . 215 


(In addition to 346 text illustrations) 

Figs. 287 and 288. An Auto Delivery-wagon built of Cigar Boxes (Page 

192) . . . . . • . • Frontispiece 





























































Launching the Toy Motor-boat .... 
The Buzz-saw whizzes when you twist the Cord ] 
The Eccentric Clog-dancer is a Circus in Himself } 
Pull the String and Jack jumps comically . J 
Whirling the Cricket-rattle makes it Chirp | 
The Crawling Turtle's Shell is a Jelly-mould J 
A Merry-go-round 1 
A Clockwork Motor 
A Ferris Wheel 
A Flying Airship . 
The Car Completed j 
The Framework . \ 
The Home-made Doll-house . | 
Interior View of Doll-house . J 
The Most Stylish Apartments in Doll Town . ] 
How the Three Stories are arranged side by ) 
side to form a Six-room Apartment . J 
An Express-wagon \ 
A Cart . . . / * 

A Jack-in-the-box . . . ) 

The Skeleton of the Jack-in-the-box | 
A Round-seated Chair . . . | 
A Round Center-table . 
A Dining-table 
A Square-seated Chair . 
A Doll's Cradle . 
The Home-made Mail-box strapped to the Face of a Door 
The Home-made Mail-box strapped to a Chair-back 






No mechanical toy is more interesting to make, nor 
more interesting to watch in operation, than a miniature 
windmill. It is a very simple toy to construct, and the 
material for making 
one can usually be 
found at hand, which 
are two reasons why 
nearly every boy and 
girl at one time or an- 
other builds one. 

The Paper Pin wheel 
shown in Fig. i is one 
of the best whirlers 
ever devised. A slight 
forward thrust of the 
stick handle upon 
which it is mounted starts it in motion, and when you run 
with the stick extended in front of you it whirls at a 
merry speed. 

A piece of paper 8 or 10 inches square is needed for the 
pinwheel. Fold this piece of paper diagonally from 

Fig. i. — The Paper Pinwheel is the Simplest 
Pinwheel to Make. 


corner to corner, both ways. Then open the paper, and 

with a pair of scissors cut along 
the diagonal creases, from the 
corners to within J inch of the 
center (Fig. 2). Next, fold cor- 
ners A, B, C, and D over to the 
center, as shown in Fig. 3, run a 
pin through the corners and 
through the center of the sheet 
Fig. 2. — Diagram for Paper f paper, drive the point of this 

pin into the end of the stick 
handle, and the pinwheel will be completed. 

The Pinion-Wheel Windmill in Fig. 4 may be made of 
cardboard or tin. A circular piece 10 or 12 inches in di- 
ameter is required. 
After marking out 
the outer edge with 
a compass, describe 
an inner circle 
about 1 inch in- 
side of it ; then draw 
two lines through 
the center at right 
angles to each other, 
and another pair at 
an angle of 45 de- 
grees tO these. Fig. 3. — How the Paper Pinwheel is Folded. 

These lines are shown by the heavy radial lines in Fig. 5. 



One-half inch from each of these 
line, as indicated by 
dotted lines in Fig. 5. 
The next thing to do 
is to cut out the disk, 
and cut along the 
heavy lines just as 
far as the lines are 
shown in the dia- 
gram (Fig. 5), and SPOOL HUB 
then to bend up the 
blades thus sepa- 
rated, to an angle 

lines draw a parallel 

Fig. 4. — A Pinion- Wheel Windmill. 

of about 45 degrees, bending on the second set of radial 

lines (dotted lines in Fig. 5). 
You had better make a 
cardboard pinion-wheel 
first, then a tin one after- 
wards, as cardboard is so 
much easier to cut. A pair of 
heavy shears will be neces- 
sary for cutting a tin wheel, 
and a cold chisel for separat- 
ing the edges of the blades. 
To Mount the Pinion- 
Wheel drive a long nail 
through the center, through the hole in a spool, and into the 
end of a stick. Then nail the stick to a post or a fence top. 


Diagram for Pinion- Wheel 


The Four-blade Windmill shown in Fig. 6 has a hub 4 
inches in diameter and 1 inch thick (Fig. 7). This should 
be cut out of hard wood. Draw two lines across one face, 
through the center, and at right angles to each other. 
Then carry these lines across the edge of the block, not 
at right angles to the sides, but at an angle of 45 degrees. 

Saw along these lines 
to a depth of if 
inches. The ends of 
the windmill blades 
are to fit in these 

Cut the blades of 
equal size, 9 inches 
long, 5 inches wide 
on the wide edge, 
and i| inches wide 
on the narrow edge, 
and fasten them in 
the slots with nails. 
With the blades in 
position, pivot the hub to the end of the windmill shaft, 
a stick 20 inches long (Fig. 6). The end opposite to 
that to which the hub is pivoted is whittled round, 
and slotted with a saw to receive a tail (Fig. 8). The 
tail may be of the same size as the blades, though it is 
shown shorter in the illustration. 

Mount the Windmill upon a post, pivoting its shaft at 

Fig. 6. — A Four-blade Windmill. 

Fig. 7. — Hub. 

Fig. 8. — How to Slot End of Shaft for Tail. 


the balancing center with a nail or screw. Bore a 
hole large enough so the shaft will turn freely upon 
the pivot, and the windmill will thus keep headed into 
the wind. 

The Eight-blade Windmill in Fig. 9 has a spool hub 
(Fig. 10), and blades made of cigar-box wood, shingles, 
tin, or cardboard (Fig. 11). You will see by Figs. 10 and 

Fig. 9. — An Eight-blade Windmill. 

11 that the blades are nailed to the side of short spoke 
sticks, and the sticks are driven into holes bored in 
the spool hub. The hub turns on the rounded end 
of the shaft stick (Fig. 12), and the square end of 
this shaft is slotted to receive the fan-shaped tail 
(Figs. 12 and 13). 

For the Hub use a large ribbon-spool. You can get one 
at any drygoods store. Locate eight holes around the 


center of the spool at equal distances from one another, 
and bore these with a gimlet or bit, or cut them with the 
small blade of your jack-knife. 

Cut the Eight Blades 6 inches long, 5 inches wide on 
their wide edge, and ij inches wide on their narrow edge. 
Prepare the hub sticks about § inch by f inch by 4§ inches 

Fig. 11 

Fig. 10 

Washer — -^ Fig. 12 

Fig. 10. — Spool Hub. Fig. ii. — Blades. Fig. 12. — Shaft. Fig. 13. — Tail. 

in size, and whittle one end pointed to fit in the hub (Fig. 
11). Fasten the blades to the spokes with nails long 
enough to drive through the spokes and clinch on the under 
side. Glue the spokes in the hub holes, turning them so 
the blades will stand at about the angle shown. 

The Shaft should be made of a hard wood stick about 
J inch by i^ inches by 30 inches in size. Cut the round 
end small enough so the hub will turn freely on it, and 


punch a small hole through it so a brad may be driven 
through to hold the hub in place. Cut the slot in the 
square end with a saw. 

Cut the Tail of the shape shown in Fig. 13. 

Pivot the Windmill upon the top of a post support, in 
the same manner as directed for 
the other windmills. 

Figure 14 shows how the toy wind- 
mill may be rigged up 

To Operate a Toy Jumping- Jack, 
by supporting the jumping-jack on 
a bracket, and connecting its string 

Fig. 14. — How the Windmill may be Rigged up to Operate a Toy Jumping- Jack. 

to the hub of the windmill. You can make your jumping- 
jack like the one in Fig. no, the details of which are 
shown in Fig. 113. 

Cut the upright of the bracket (A, Figs. 14 and 15) 
14 inches long, and the crosspiece (B) 7 inches long. Nail 
A to B, and nail the jumping-jack at its center to the end 
of B (Fig. 15). Fasten the triangular block (C) to the 



Fig. 1 6 

lower end of A, and then nail both A and C to the edge 

of the shaft at a point 
that will bring the string 
of the jumping-jack a 
trifle beyond the windmill 

Fasten a small stick 
with a brad driven in one 
end, in notches cut in the 
hub's flanges (Fig. 16), 
and connect the brad and 
Jack's string with a piece 
of wire or strong string. 
Then as the windmill re- 
volves it will operate the toy in the manner indicated 
in Figs. 14 and 15. 



Fig. 16. 

Fig. 15 
— How the Jumping-jack is 

Spool Hub. 



The Malay tailless kite is probably the most practical 
kind ever invented. It will fly in a wind that the tail 
variety could not withstand, and it will fly in a breeze too 

Fig. 17. — A Malay Tailless Kite. 

light to carry up most other forms of kites. It is also a 
strong pulling kite, and can be used for sending aloft lan- 
terns and flags. For the purpose of lifting, the pulling 
strength can be doubled by flying two Malays in tandem. 
How to Make a Malay. Figure 17 shows a Malay kite 



in flight, Fig. 18 a detail of the completed kite, Fig. 19 
the completed framework, and Figs. 20, 21, and 22 the 
details for preparing the frame sticks. 

The Sticks. This kite has a vertical stick and a bow- 
stick, each of which should be 40 inches long, about f 
inch wide, and | inch thick, for a kite of medium size. 
In the cutting of the sticks lies half the secret of making a 

kite that will fly suc- 

Drive a small nail or 
large tack into each end 
of the two sticks, to 
fasten the framing- 
string to (Figs. 20 and 
21), and notch the side 
edges of the bow-stick 
near each end for the 
attachment of the bow- 
string (Figs. 21 and 22). 
The amount to bend 
the bow-stick is important. For a kite with a bow 40 
inches long the distance between the string and stick 
should be 6 inches (Fig. 21). Use a strong twine for 
the bow-string, and tie it securely to the notched ends. 

Framing the Sticks. Fasten the bow-stick at its exact 
center to the vertical stick, placing it 4 inches down from 
the top of the vertical stick, as indicated in Fig. 19. Drive 
a couple of brads through the two sticks to hold them 

Fig. 18. 

Completed Malay Kite with Bell} 
Band Attached. 





together, and then reinforce the connection by wrapping 
the joint with strong linen thread, crossing the thread in 
the manner shown. 

When the two sticks have been joined, connect their 
ends with the framing-string. Stretch this string from 
stick to stick, and tie securely to the end nails. Instead 
of the end nails, the sticks 
may be notched to receive 
the framing-string, but the 
nails are more satisfactory 
because the string can be 
tied fast to them and will 
not slip. 

Covering the Frame- 
work. The strong light- 
weight brown wrapping- 
paper now so generally 
used makes an excellent 
covering for the frame- 
work. A few sheets can 

Fig. 19. — Framework of Malay Kite. 

be purchased at a near-by store for the purpose. You 
will likely have to paste together two or more sheets to 
make one large enough. The paper should be placed on 
the outer face of the bow-stick, and should be allowed 
a little fullness instead of being stretched tight as on 
hexagonal tail kites. Lap the edges of the paper over 
the framing-string in the ordinary way of covering 
a kite. 



Attach the Bridle at the intersection of the bow-stick 
and vertical stick, and at the lower end of the vertical 
stick (Fig. 1 8), and make it of the right length so when 
held over to one side it will reach to the end of the bow, as 

indicated in Fig. 18. Tie 



Fig. 22 


the flying line securely at 
the point A (Fig. 18) ; then 
the kite will be ready for its 
maiden flight. 

Flying-Line. The kind 
of cord which a mason uses 
for his plumb-lines is 
splendid for flying the 
Malay kite. If you can- 
not get some balls of this, 
be certain that what you 
do get can be relied upon, 
because it is provoking to 
lose a kite which you have 
taken a great deal of pains 
in making, through the 
breaking of the flying line. 
The Box-Kite. Of the 
more pretentious kites, none is as popular as the rec- 
tangular box-kite. 

Box-kites may be purchased ready-made in a number of 
sizes, but they are not cheap, and it will pay any boy to 
take the time necessary to make one. While their con- 











Fig. 20 

Fig. 20. — Detail of Vertical Stick. 

Fig. 2i. — Detail of Bow-Stick. 

Fig. 22. — Detail of End of Bow-Stick. 



struction requires considerable more work than the single- 
plane type of kite, it is not difficult. 

Figures 23 and 24 show a kite of scientifically developed 
proportions. Pine, spruce, and whitewood are the best 
materials for 

The Kite Sticks, though 
any strong, light-weight 
wood of straight grain 
may be used if easier to 
obtain. If you live near 
a lumber yard or planing- 
mill, possibly you can get 
strips of just the size you 
require from the waste 
heap, for the mere asking, 
or for a few cents get them 
ripped out of a board. If 
not, you will find it easy 
enough to cut them your- 
self with a sharp rip-saw. 

The Side Frames. Cut 
the four horizontal sticks 
§ inch thick and f inch 
wide, by 36 inches long (A, Fig. 25), and the four up- 
right connecting sticks (B, Fig. 25) J inch thick, \ inch 
wide, and 10 inches long. Tack the upright sticks to the 
horizontal ones 6 inches from the ends of the latter, as 
shown in Fig. 25, using slender brads for the purpose, 

Fig. 23. — Raising the Box-Kite. 



and clinching the projecting ends. In fastening these sticks, 
be careful to set sticks B at right angles to sticks A. 

Fig. 24. — The Box-Kite. 

After fastening together the side-frame sticks as shown 
in Fig. 25, lay them aside until you have prepared 


t ' 


* t r 

— B 



3 6" 

Fig. 25. — Make Two Side Frames like this. 

The Covering for the End Cells. A light-weight muslin 
or tough paper should be used for this material. Cheese- 
cloth will do if you give it a coat of thin varnish to fill up 



the pores and make it air-tight, after it has been put on. 
The light-weight brown wrapping-paper now so commonly 
used is good covering material. 

The cell bands for the kite illustrated should be 10 inches 
wide and 5 feet 9 inches long. If of cloth, they should be 
hemmed along each edge to prevent raveling and to make 
a firm edge. If of paper, the edges should be folded over 
a light framing-cord and pasted. Sew together the ends of 

Fig. 26. — Cross-Section of the Box-Kite. 

the cloth bands, or paste the ends of the paper bands, lap- 
ping them so the measurement around the inside will be 
exactly 5 feet 8 inches, the proper measurement around 
the sticks of the finished kite. 

Assembling the Kite. Slip the bands over the side 
frames, spread the frames to their fullest extent, and hold 
them in this position by means of sticks sprung in tem- 
porarily between upright sticks B. Then measure the 
proper length for the diagonal braces C (Fig. 26). These 
sticks should be notched at their ends to fit over the sticks 



A, as shown in Fig. 27, and they should be a trifle long so 
they will be slightly bow-shaped when put in place. In 
this way the frames will keep the cloth or paper bands 
stretched tight. 

The notched ends of the diagonals should be lashed with 
thread to keep them from splitting. Lashings of thread 
around the frame sticks A, as shown in Figs. 25 and 27, 
will keep the ends of the braces from slipping away from the 

uprights B, which is the 
proper position for them. 
Bind the braces together at 
their centers with thread, 
as shown in Figs. 24 and 
A^n/,/.# 26. Coat the lashings 

with glue after winding 
them, and the thread will 
hold its position better. 
The cloth or paper bands should be fastened to each hori- 
zontal frame stick with two tacks placed near the edges of 
the bands. 
There are several methods of 

Attaching the Bridle, but that shown in Fig. 24 is 
generally considered the most satisfactory. Of course, the 
kite is flown other side up, with the bridle underneath. 
The three-point attachment has cords fastened at the 
two outer corners of one cell, and a third cord to the center 
of the outer edge of the other cell ; and the four-point 
attachment has cords attached at the four outer corners 

Detail of Diagonal Braces. 



of the kite. The ends of the bridle should be brought 
together and tied at a distance of about 3 feet from the 
kite. It is a good plan to connect the ends to a fancy- 
work ring. 

A Good Hand Kite-Reel that can be held in one hand and 
operated by the other is shown in Fig. 28. Get a J-lb. 
size baking-powder can for the winding-spool, locate the 
center of the cover and bottom end, and with a can-opener 

Fig. 2 

A Good Hand Kite-Reel. 

cut a hole 1 inch in diameter through each (Fig. 29). 
Then cut two wooden disks 5 inches in diameter for the 
spool flanges. These may be cut out of thin wood. If you 
do not wish to take the trouble to cut them round, just 
saw off the four corners diagonally, making the pieces 
octagonal. Bore a i-inch hole through the center of 
each piece. Tack the can cover to the exact center of 
one disk, as shown in Fig. 30, and the can to the exact 
center of the other. Then fit the cover on the can, and 
glue a strip of cloth or heavy paper around the joint to 



keep the cover from working off, and the spool will be 

The axle upon which the spool turns is a piece of 
broom-handle 10 inches or so in length (Fig. 30). Bore 

Fig. 29 

Figs. 29 and 30. — Details of Hand Kite- Reel. 

two holes through it in the positions shown, for pins to keep 
the spool in its proper place. Wooden pegs can be cut for 
pins. For a winding handle, pivot a spool on the right- 
hand disk by means of a nail or screw. The inner flange 
of the spool handle may be cut off as shown in Fig. 28. 



Both hands are frequently needed to haul in string 
quickly enough to bring a kite around into the wind, or to 
handle it when it pulls very strong, and then there is nothing 
to do but drop the hand reel upon the ground, unless you 
have an assistant to give it to. This is where the advan- 
tage of 

A Body Kite-Reel comes in. With it strapped about the 

Fig. 33 

Fig. 31.— A Body Kite-Reel. 
Fig. 32. — Detail of Axle Support. 
Fig. 33. — Detail of Crank. 

Fig. 31 

waist, it will go wherever you go, and always be within easy 
reach. Figure 31 shows one simple to make. The spool 
of this is made similar to that of the hand reel shown in 
Fig. 28. If, however, you wish a larger winding-spool, 
you can use a larger can than the baking-powder can — 
a tomato can or syrup can — and increase the diameter of 
the wooden flanges accordingly. Instead of the spool turn- 


ing upon the broom-handle axle, the axle turns with the 
spool, so the spool must be fastened to the axle. 

The axle supports A (Figs. 31 and 32) should be about 
7 inches long, 4 inches wide at the wide end, and 2 inches 
wide at the narrow end. Cut the holes to receive the axle 
ends a trifle large so the axle will turn easily. Cut the 
connecting crosspieces B of the right length so there will be 
about \ inch between the ends of the spool and supports A. 

Cut the crank stick C as shown in Fig. 33, bore a hole 
for the axle end to fit in, bore another hole in the edge for 
a set-screw to hold the stick in place on the axle end, and 
pivot a spool in place for a handle. If the hole in the spool 
is too large for the head of the nail used for pivoting, slip 
a small iron or leather washer over the nail. 

An old belt or shawl-strap should be used for strapping 
the kite-reel to your body. Fasten this to the ends of the 
axle supports A by nailing the strips D to them as shown 
in Fig. 32. 


Model aeronautics has become nearly as popular as kite 
flying, and girls as well as boys have taken to building 
these unique air toys. 

The model aeroplane requires more work than ordinary 
kite construction. It also requires more patience and 
greater accuracy, because each part of the little aircraft 
must be made just so, assembled just so, and " tuned-up " 
just so, to produce a model which will give a good account 
of itself. Of course your first model will probably not be 
perfect. But if you do your work correctly and carefully 
it will fly, and the experience you have acquired will make 
it possible to turn out a more nearly perfect second model. 

Many types of model aeroplanes have been devised, 
but those of the simplest form of construction have made 
the best showing. The majority of record-breaking models 
have been of one type — a triangular framework, equipped 
with two planes, and a pair of propellers operated by a 
pair of rubber-strand motors. A most successful model of 
this type is shown in Fig. 34, and described and illustrated 
on the following pages. This model has a distance record 
of T620 feet made at the Aero Club of Illinois' aviation 



field at Cicero, Chicago, where it flew 16 feet beyond the 
fence of the 160 acre field. The model weighs but 5 \ 
ounces, has 9-inch propellers of 27 inch pitch, and is in 

every essential a 
speed machine. 

The first part of 
the model to make 
is the triangular 

Fuselage, or motor 
base. This consists 
of two side sticks, 
splines, or spars {A, 
Fig. 35) of straight- 
grained white pine 
cut to the dimen- 
sions marked upon 
the drawing, with 
their bow ends bev- 
eled off for a dis- 
tance of i\ inches, 
glued together, and 
bound with thread. 
The stern ends have 
a spread of 8 inches, 
and are braced at that distance by the separator B (Fig. 35). 
This separator is fastened flatwise between sticks A, and 
its edges are reduced as shown in the small section draw- 
ing of Fig. 37 so they will offer less resistance to the air. 

Fig. 34. — Launching a Model Aeroplane. 



This piece is fastened between sticks A with brads. Sepa- 
rators C, D, and E are of the sizes marked in Fig. 35, and 
of the proper length to fit between side sticks A at the 

____— — — -^ 

.4— 6i 





Fig. 35. — Plan. 











Main Plane. 

IN PLANE-, . 1 

Fig. 36. — Side Elevation (without Rubber Motor). 
Figs. 35 and 36. — Working-Drawings of Model Aeroplane Designed and Built 

by Harry Wells. 
This Model has a record of 1620 feet made at the Aero Club of Illinois' Aviation Field at Cicero, 


places indicated on the drawing. They are cut oval- 
shaped, as shown in the small section drawing in Fig. 37. 
Before fastening the separators in position, 
The Thrust Bearings for the propellers, and the end 
plates for connecting the wire stays, must be prepared. 
Figure 38 shows a dimensioned detail of the thrust bear- 
ings, and Fig. 37 shows how they are bound to the ends 
of sticks A with thread. These are cut out of brass, bent 



into the shape shown, and have a hole pierced through the 
folded tip for the propeller-shaft to run through, another 
through one end for the brad to pass through that pins 
stick A to B, and another through the other end to fasten 
the end of the wire stays to. The small detail in Fig. 37 
shows the end plates for the wire stays. These are made 
no longer than is necessary for the connecting holes for the 
wire-stay ends. Pierce a hole through the center of each 

Fig. 39 

^_^ === J = ==i' / GRUBBER TUB 

r;:=== ^~t Wl RE RING 

Fig. 38 

Fig. 37 
Fig. 37. — Detail of Fuselage and Motor of the Wells Model. 
Fig. 38. — Detail of Thrust Bearing, Propeller-Shaft, and Connections. 
Fig. 39. — Detail of Bow Hook and how Rubber Motor is Connected to it. 

plate for the brad to pass through which fastens sticks A 
to the ends of the separators. The plates are bound to 
sticks A with thread. 

The Bow Hooks support the bow ends of the rubber 
motor, and are made upon the ends of a piece of heavy 
piano-wire bent V-shaped to fit over the ends of sticks A 
(Fig. 39). Bind the wire to the sticks with thread, coating 
the thread with glue to make it hold fast (Fig. 37). 

The Main Plane has a framework built as shown in Fig. 
40, with the front or entering-edge, and the rear or following- 


edge, made of sticks of white pine or other light-weight 
wood, and the ribs and tips on the ends made of No. 16 
gauge aluminum wire. The ends of the frame sticks are 
cut away on their outer edge, to receive the ends of the wire 
forming the tips, and the ends of these wires, and the laps 
of the wire ribs, are bound in position with thread, and the 
thread then coated with glue to hold it in position. 

The Elevator, or front plane, has a framework made as 
shown in Fig. 41. Its entering-edge is a stick, and its 
following-edge, ribs, and end tips, are made of No. 16 guage 
aluminum wire. You will notice by Fig. 41 that the 
center ribs cross the following-edge of the frame and are 
bent up in the form of a flat loop. This loop rests against 
the under side of the fuselage, and gives the elevator its 
proper angle for stability (Fig. 36). The tips are bent up 
to add stability. 

The frames of the main plane and elevator are covered 
with china-silk, which may either be sewed or glued in place, 
and this is given a thin coat of shellac to make it air-tight 
and taut. The covering must be put on smoothly to re- 
duce to a minimum what is known as skin resistance — 
the resistance that the plane makes to the air while passing 
through it. 

The main plane and elevator are held to the fuselage by 
means of rubber-bands slipped beneath them and over the 
fuselage, and unlike the planes of the majority of models, 
are fastened to the under side of the fuselage. Figure 36 
shows the approximate position of the elevator. That of 



the main plane will vary under different air conditions, 
sometimes being placed over the separator C, and at other 
times closer to separator B than is shown in Fig. 35. 
Therefore, you must adjust your plane and elevator — 
this operation is known as tuning — ■ to suit the condition 
of the atmosphere, until you find the positions where they 
will give the machine the greatest stability. A great factor 

Fig. 41 

Fig. 42 

Fig. 40 

Fig. 40. — Detail of the Main Plane Framework of the Wells Model. 
Fig. 41. — Detail of the Elevator Framework. 
Fig. 42. — Detail of Fin. 

in the successful flight of a model aeroplane lies in properly 
tuning the planes, both laterally and longitudinally, and of 
course the planes must balance at their centers, in order 
to make the machine balance properly. 

The Fin directly over the center of the elevator (Figs. 34 
and 36) is provided for stability, and may be used as a 
rudder by turning it slightly to one side or the other. It 
is made of No. 34 gauge sheet aluminum, cut to the form 



Glass Bead 
Wire shaft 

Fig. 43.— The Wells 
Model Propeller. 

shown in Fig. 42. Its vertical edge is bent around a piece 
of heavy wire, as shown in the plan detail of Fig. 42, and 
the lower end of the wire is fastened upright between the 
bow ends of sticks A. 

The Propellers are the most difficult 
part of the model aeroplane to make. 
They must be very accurately cut, and 
must be of identical size and pitch. 
The pitch of a propeller is, theoretically, the 
distance forward that it advances in one complete revolution. 

Figure 43 shows one of the propellers of Harry Wells' 
machine, which is 9 inches in length and has a 27-inch 
pitch. Figure 44 shows 

How to Prepare the Propellers. The pair must be oppo- 
sites, that is, one must be of right-hand pitch and the 
other of left-hand pitch, or, in other words, the upper end 



A B C D E F 

Fig. 44. — How to Prepare a 9-inch Propeller. 

of the right-hand pitch propeller turns to the right, and 
that of the left-hand pitch propeller turns to the left, when 
viewing them from the rear. 


Step A consists in properly planing up a straight-grained 
block of white pine i| inches thick, 2 inches wide, and 
9 inches long, with its sides and ends straight and true, for 

The Propeller Blank. Draw a line around the four faces 
of this block at the exact center of the length. Then on 
faces C and D, lay off a distance of J inch on the center- 
line, measuring from the edge of face B, for the thickness 
of the propeller-hub, and draw diagonal lines from the upper 
and lower left-hand corners of faces C and D to the end 
of the hub center-line (Step B). Then cut away the por- 
tions outside of these lines, as shown in Step C. Lay out 
the hub upon faces A and B of the block, with a J-inch 
diameter, and bore a small hole through the center to receive 
the propeller-shaft (Step C). Draw diagonals from the 
corners to the center-line of the hub (Step D) ; then cut 
away the wood outside of these lines (Step E). 

The next step (F) consists in laying out the form of the 
propeller blade upon all four sides and ends of the block, 
and Step G is the final one of cutting out the propeller, 
scooping out its blades concave on one side, and carving 
them convex on the opposite side. A very sharp knife 
must be used for cutting ; and the work must be done 
slowly and carefully, because the least slip is likely to ruin 
the propeller. The entering-edge of each blade is the almost 
straight edge, and should be cut very thin. The ends of 
the blades should also be cut thin, while the hub should be 
cut away as much as can safely be done without weaken- 
ing the propeller. 


When you have completed cutting the propellers, place 
them at their centers across the edge of a knife-blade, and 
if they do not balance perfectly, locate the trouble and 
correct it. Finish the work with fine emery-paper, and 
then shellac it. Some boys glue silk over the ends of their 
propeller blades, for a distance of J inch or so, to reinforce 
them and make them less likely to split. 

The Propeller-Shafts are made of heavy piano- wire, bent 
into a hook at one end (Fig. 38) to receive the rubber 
strands of the motor, and cut of the right length to extend 
through the hole in the bearing, through a glass bead, 
through the propeller, and then to bend over the side of 
the hub (Figs. 37 and 38). By bending over the end of the 
shaft against the hub, it is held securely in place. 

The Motors consist of twelve strands of |-inch flat 
rubber, each, and as these are 1 yard in length, exactly 24 
yards of rubber are required. The rubber is not connected 
direct to the hooks on the bow and propeller-shafts, as the 
wire would quickly cut through the strands. Instead, 
small rings are bent out of wire, with pieces of small rubber- 
tubing slipped over the wire, and the ends of the rubber 
strands are looped through these rings and bound in place 
with thread (Fig. 39). The wire rings are then slipped 
on and off the hooks quickly. As light and heat cause 
rubber to deteriorate, you must remove the motors from 
the machine after use, pack away in a covered box, and 
keep in a cool place, in order to get the longest life possible 
out of the rubber. 



It has been found that rubber motors can be wound 
much farther by lubricating them with glycerine. It is 
only necessary to put a few drops of the glycerine upon a 
clean cloth, and rub it over the outside strands ; then wind 

Fig. 47 Fig. 45 Fig- 40 

Fig. 45. — A Home-made Motor Winder. 
Fig. 46. — The Kind of Egg-Beater to Use. 
Fig. 47. — How the Motors are Connected to Winder for Winding. 

the motors, and it will work over the surface of the inner 
strands until all parts are covered. 

Of course the rubber motors must be twisted an equal 
number of turns, in order to make the propellers work the 
same, and this is usually done with an ingenious winder 
made from an egg-beater, which winds both motors simul- 


The Home-made Motor- Winder shown in Fig. 45 is 
made from a Dover egg-beater (Fig. 46). To convert the 
egg-beater into a winder, it is necessary to cut off the loop 
ends and the center pivot wires on which the loops turn. 
Then bend the cut-off ends of the loops into hooks, and 
punch them to fit over the pivot wire ends, as before (Fig. 
45). The ends of the pivot wires must be riveted to keep 
the hooks in position. 

Figure 47 shows 

How the Egg-Beater Winds the Motors. While an 
assistant supports the model by the propeller end, you 
remove the motor rings from the hooks on the bow of the 
fuselage, and slip them on to the hooks of the egg-beater. 
Then you turn the crank of the winder, counting the turns 
as you do so, and when you have wound the motors as 
far as you wish, slip off the motor rings, and slip them back 
on to the bow hooks of the model aeroplane. Motors of 
models like that shown in this chapter are wound one- 
thousand turns or more for each flight. 

Wind the Motors Slowly, especially after the first row 
of knots begin, as it puts the rubber to the least amount 
of strain by doing this. Quick winding not only strains 
the rubber but makes the knots form in bunches, and un- 
even winding, of course, produces an uneven unwinding. 

The propellers must be held after the motors have been 
wound, to keep them in check. Figure 34 shows 

The Position to Take for Launching a Model from the 
hand. The machine should not be thrown forward, as 


the movement would cause too great a disturbance of the 
air, resulting in the machine losing its stability, and prob- 
ably upsetting. The best method is to give the model a 
slight push that will start it off at a speed a trifle under 
that produced by its propellers. 



The toy motor-boat shown in Figs. 48 and 49 is pro- 
pelled by a tin propeller run by a rubber-band motor. A 

Fig. 49. — The Completed Motor-Boat. 

handful of rubber-bands will cost only a few cents, and 
the rest of the working material can be picked up at home. 

Prepare the Bottom of 
the Hull out of a piece of 
wood 1 inch thick, making 
it of the shape and dimen- 
sions shown in Fig. 51. Be 
careful to curve the side 
edges the same. Use a saw 
for cutting out the piece, 
then smooth up the edges 
with a plane and sandpaper. The stern should be sawed 
off on a bevel as shown in Fig. 52. 


Fig. 50. — Stern, with Motor in Place. 



The Sides of the hull (B, Figs. 52 and 53) are thin strips 

2h inches wide. 

Nail one to one edge of the bottom block, 
then saw off the 
bow end on a line 
with the bow of the 
bottom block, and 

— 2 o" 

Fig. 51. — Diagram of Hull. 

— *1 the stern end on 
the same slant as 
the bevel cut on the stern of the bottom block. With one 
piece in position, nail on the second side and trim off its 
ends. If you have any difficulty in making a neat joint 
between the bow 
ends of sides B, 
take a piece of tin 
from a can, bend it 
around the bow, and 
tack it in place as 
shown in Fig. 48. 
The stern piece (C, 
Figs. 53 and 54) 
should be cut next, 
to fit the slanted 
ends of the sides. 

The Deck (D) ex- 
tends from the bow 

almost to the center of the boat. Its top surface should 
taper in its length and curve from side to side. The piece 
may be whittled or planed to this shape. Fasten it with 
brads to the top edges of the sides of the boat. 

Fig. 53 

Figs. 52 and 53. — How the Hull, Sides, Stern and 
Deck Pieces are Assembled. 

Fig. 48. — Launching the Toy Motor-Boat. 


To Complete the Boat, go over the work carefully, trim 
off all projecting edges, drive nail heads beneath the sur- 
faces, putty nail holes and cracks, and give the wood two 
coats of paint of whatever color you want to have the 

The Propeller (£, Fig. 54) is cut from the side of a tin 
can. Cut a piece 3 inches long and f inch wide, round its 
ends, and with the point of a nail pierce a hole through it 
each side of the center of the length of the piece (Fig. 55). 
To finish the propeller, it is only necessary to take hold of 
the two ends and twist the piece into the shape shown in 
Fig. 56. 

The Propeller-Shaft requires a short piece of wire with 
one end bent into a hook (F, Fig. 56). Stick the straight 
end of this shaft through one hole in the propeller, and 
the hooked end through the other hole, then twist the 
hooked end over on to the main part of the shaft, as shown 
in Fig. 57. Make a tight twist so the propeller will be 
held perfectly rigid on the shaft. 

The Bearing Plate G (Figs. 54 and 58) supports the 
propeller. Cut it out of a piece of tin ij inches wide by 
3 inches long, bend it in half crosswise to give it stiffness, 
and then bend it lengthwise to the angle shown so it will fit 
over the slanted stern of the boat. Punch two holes through 
the upper end for nailing the plate to the stern, and a hole 
at the lower end for the propeller-shaft to run through. 

For a Thrust Bearing, slip a couple of beads over the 
propeller-shaft, between the propeller and bearing plate 








Fig. 54. — Longitudinal Section of Assembled Motor-Boat. 
Figs. 55-59. — Details of Propeller. 
Fig. 60. — Rubber-Band Motor. 


G. Probably you can find glass beads in your mother's 
button bag. 

After slipping the beads on to the shaft, and sticking 
the shaft through the hole in bearing plate G, bend the 
end of the shaft into a hook ; then screw a small screw- 
hook into the bottom of the hull, at the bow end (/, Fig. 
54), and you will be ready for 

The Rubber-Band Motor. Rubber-bands about i| 
inches in length are best for the purpose. Loop these 
together end to end (Fig. 60) to form a strand that will 
reach from hook / to the hook on the propeller-shaft ; 
then form three more strands of this same length, and slip 
the end loops of all four strands over the hooks. 

To Wind the Motor, give the propeller about one hun- 
dred turns with your finger; then, keep hold of the pro- 
peller until you launch the boat. 

There are many ways of elaborating upon the design and 
construction of this toy motor-boat, but, having given the 
necessary instructions for building a simple model, I am 
going to leave further development for you to work out. 
Here is an opportunity for you to use your ingenuity. 
Devise an adjustable rudder, add a keel, finish off the cock- 
pit with a coaming, install a headlight made from a pocket 
flashlight — in fact, see just how complete a motor-boat 
model you can build. 


You can own a water-motor like the one shown in Fig. 
61, because its construction requires nothing but easily 
obtained materials. 

The Case of this water-motor is made of an empty 

Fig. 6i. — A Varnish-Can Water-Motor in Operation. 

varnish can — preferably one of gallon capacity. Noth- 
ing better could be desired. The tin can makes a light- 




weight compact case ; the spout in the top is in just the 
right place and of the right size to receive the water power 
from a faucet ; and as the water connections can be made 
tight there is no possibility of water splashing on to the 
floor — ■ a big argument in your favor when seeking per- 
mission to use the motor 
in the bath-tub, wash- 
basin, or kitchen sink. 

You can get an empty 
varnish can from any 
painter, or at a paint 
store. The first step in 
converting the can into 
the motor case consists 
in removing the bottom. 
You will find this sol- 
dered in place, in all 
probability, and it can 
be removed quickly by 
holding the can over the 
flame of a gas burner 
until the solder melts, 
when a few taps upon the edges will cause the piece of 
tin to drop off. 

The Water-Motor Wheel is shown in the cross-sections 
of the water-motor (Figs. 63 and 64), and Figs. 65 to 67 
show its details. The diameter of the wheel should be 
about I inch less than the inside width of the can. In 

Fig. 62. 

The Completed Varnish-Can 

4 o 


the model from which the drawings were made, this 
measurement is 5J inches. Cut the two side pieces of the 
wheel out of a piece of cigar-box wood, and bore a f-inch 
hole through the center of each for the wheel axle. Fasten 


Fig. 63 

Figs. 63 and 64. 

Fig. 64 
Sections through Water-Motor Case. 

a spool to the center of one side piece for a pulley-wheel 
(Fig. 66). 

Prepare Eight Paddles if inches wide and 2 J inches long, 
out of cigar-box wood. Locate the positions for the ends 
of the paddles, upon the side pieces, by drawing a hori- 
zontal line, a vertical line, and two diagonal lines at angles 



of 45 degrees, through their centers. This will simplify 
the matter of spacing the paddles equidistant from one 
another (Fig. 67). Use brads for fastening the side pieces 
to the paddle ends. Those removed from the cigar boxes 
will do. 

The Wheel Shaft should be a trifle shorter than the 
inside width of the can, and enough smaller than the 
j-inch hole in the wheel side pieces so the wheel will turn 
freely. Locate the centers for the axle upon the two sides 

Fig. 65 Fig. 66 

Fig. 65. — The Completed Water-Motor Wheel. 
Figs. 66 and 67. — Details of Water-Motor Wheel. 

Fig. 67 

of the can, in the proper position so there will be the same 
margin above and at the ends of the wheel. Drive a nail 
through each side of the can into the axle end. 

An Outlet for the water after it has passed over the 
wheel paddles must be provided, and the best way is to 
fasten a strip to two opposite sides of the can so as to 
raise the bottom about an inch, as shown in Figs. 62, 63, 
and 64. 

For a Pulley-Belt use a piece of heavy cord. Cut a slot 
through the front of the can for the belt to run through, 



and make this slot large enough so the cord will not rub 
against the sides (Fig. 63). 

Pulley- Wheels for attaining different speeds can be made 

of spools of various sizes. A bicycle wheel with the tire 

removed, mounted in a frame, is excellent for a large wheel. 

Connecting up the Water-Motor. If you operate the 

water-motor in the kitchen sink, you can either build a 

platform as shown in Fig. 61, 
to bring the spout of the var- 
nish-can case up to the level 
of the faucet, or you can set 
the water-motor in the sink 
and lead a piece of rubber 
tubing from the spout to the 
faucet, as shown in Fig. 68. 
If you use the latter arrange- 
ment, slip the lower end of the 
rubber tubing over a short 
piece of glass, brass, or tin 
tubing, and stick the short tubing through a hole in a cork 
large enough to fit the spout of the varnish-can case (Fig. 
69). If you raise the water-motor high enough so the 
faucet will set down into the spout, you can cut a large 
enough hole for the faucet, through a cork, and then fit 
the cork in the spout as shown in Fig. 64. 

Another Water-Motor. The little water-motor in Fig. 
70 will furnish sufficient power to operate simple mechani- 
cal toys. 




Fig. 68 

Figs. G8-69. — How to Make a 
Water-tight Connection between 
Faucet and Water-Motor. 



The Water-Mo- 
tor Wheel. Pro- 
cure two baking- 
powder can covers 
for the ends of the 
water-motor wheel 
(.4, Fig. 72), a 
cigar-box out of 
which to make the 
wheel paddles, and 
a stick I inch 
square and 5 
inches long for the 
wheel axle (B, Fig. 

Cut eight pad- 
dles from the 
cigar-box wood 1 
inch wide and 5 
inches long. Take 
a pair of these 
strips and fasten 
them to one can 
cover, in line with 
each other, and 
close against the 
sides of the cover 
(C, Fig. 73). Fasten 


rhe Water-Motor 




with tacks or brads driven through the cover into the ends 
of the strips. Take another pair of strips and fasten them 
to the same cover, in a similar manner, at right angles to 
pair C (D, Fig. 72). Then tack the pairs of strips E and 
F to the cover halfway between pairs C and D. With the 
paddles in position, locate the exact center of the end of 

the can cover, and 
"£;dl _ j^v drive a nail 

through at this 
point into the end 
of axle B. Slip 
the free ends of the 
paddles into the 
other can cover, 
and carefully drive 
tacks or brads 
through the cover 
into them. Drive 
a nail through the 
center of the cover 
into the end of 
axle B. 

The Wheel Sup- 
ports. Figure 74 
shows the supports for the wheel. Cut the end pieces G 
4 inches wide and 6 inches high, and the cross strips H 
if inches wide and 5! inches long. Nail pieces G to H, as 
shown, allowing the lower ends of G to extend i inch below 

Fig. 72 

jjp/IIIKi j^ 

r c "iiimii 



lilli«[' l " , "c i 

•Jill JM 

Figs. 72 and 73. 

Fig. 73 
Details of Water-Motor Wheel. 



strips H, and leaving a space of § inch between strips H, 
The axle holes in pieces G (Fig. 74) should be located in 
the center of the width of these pieces, and halfway be- 
tween their tops and strips H. Bore the holes with a 
gimlet, or make them by driving a large nail through the 
pieces, and then 
withdrawing it. 

To Mount the 
Wheel upon the sup- 
ports, withdraw the 
nails driven into the 
ends of axle B, slip 
the wheel between 
uprights G, and 
drive the nails 
through the holes in 
G back into the 
holes in the axle 
ends (Fig. 71). 

The Pulley Wheel. One can cover should be con- 
verted into a pulley by winding several turns of string 
around it, near each edge, leaving a groove between 
the string. Coat the string with glue to make it stick 
fast to the cover. 

The Water-Motor Case. Figure 70 shows how the 
water-motor case is constructed by fastening boards N, 
I, J, K, L, and M to the wheel supports G. There must 
be a slot through / and another through /, for the string 

Fig. 74. — Support for Water-Motor Wheel. 


belt to pass through, and a hole through K for the intake 
of water from a faucet. These can be cut out of the 
edges of the boards, as shown, before they are nailed in 
place. Leave an opening between boards TV and M, and 
the bottom of ends G, for an outlet for waste water. 



It is often thought that a toy railway is beyond a boy's 
ingenuity to construct, whereas, in reality, it is one of 
the simplest toys he can make. This applies to the 
tracks, stations, and cars of every description, all of which 
can be made with a few strips of wood, some spools, nails, 
cardboard, and a bottle of glue, for materials. If you 
have passed the age of caring for such toys as this, you 
will, no doubt, enjoy the making of one r 

for your younger brother, or for one of / — — 
your boy relatives. \Cr^Ji e 

Figure 76 shows a railway set up and 
in running order. As shown in the illus- 
tration, / \ : Hn 

The Trolley-Line, or overhead cable, runs 
around the wheels of two supports, one at 
either end of the track. Prepare four 
pieces of wood the shape and size of that 

shown m Fig. 75 for the uprights of these ■* 4 ^ 

Fig. 75. — Upright. 

supports, and make two wheels three 

inches in diameter. The wheels may be marked out with 

a home-made compass — a pencil tied to the end of 


4 8 


a piece of string, if you haven't a compass. When 
the wheels have been cut out, place them in your bench- 
vise, one at a time, and with a file make a groove 

Fig. 76. — The Toy Railway 

around the edge as shown at C, Fig. 77. Bore a three- 
eighths-inch hole through each upright at F, Fig. 75, 
and another through the center of each wheel. Now 

fasten two of the uprights 

six inches apart upon a 

block of wood, as shown at 

A and B, Fig. 77. Whittle 

a shaft to fit loosely in the 

holes of the uprights, and, 

after slipping it into them, 

fasten one of the wheels 

upon one end and a small 

spool upon the other (see 

C and D in Fig. 77). A weight of some sort should be 

fastened to the base, as shown at E. The uprights for 

the other support should be similarly mounted upon 

Fig. 77. — Support for Trolley-Line. 


another block of wood. Fasten the remaining wheel to an 
axle run through the holes in the uprights, and, as it is 
unnecessary to have a spool upon the other end of the 

in Operation. 

axle, cut it off short and drive a nail through it to prevent 
it from slipping through the holes. Having thus prepared 
the supports, place them as far apart as you wish to 
extend the railway, and run a cord around the two wheels 
and tie it. Then set the supports a little farther apart, 
if necessary, to tighten the cord. Run another cord from 
spool D to 

A Water-Motor, steam engine, or whatever power you 
can get with which to operate the railway. A bicycle 
inverted with the tire removed from its rear wheel has 
been used satisfactorily, as has also a sewing-machine 
with the belt slipped off and the cord from the spool put 
in its place. 

A good substitute for the tin tracks ordinarily sold in 
shops for toy railways will be found in those shown in 
Fig. 78. These 



Tracks consist of quarter-inch strips mounted upon 
pieces of cardboard. Make a small gimlet-hole in one 
end of each stick, and drive a short finishing nail in the 
opposite end (see Fig. 78). Cut the cardboard strips the 

■ Nail. Dowel. 

Fig. 78. — The Tracks. 

length of the sticks, and tack them to the sticks as shown 
in the illustration. If inch and one-half spools are used 
for the car wheels, the inside gauge of the tracks should 
be an inch and three-quarters. By lapping the card- 
board strips over the ends of the sticks, and the sticks 
over the ends of the cardboard strips, and placing the nail 
dowels in the ends of the sticks as in the drawing, a strong 
track is formed when the pieces are fitted together. This 
may be extended to any desired length by adding more 
sections to it. 

The Cars for this railway will have their trucks con- 
structed alike, and it is a simple matter to transform a 


-** & 




Fig. 7Q. — A Top View of Car Truck. 

car from one style into another. Figure 79 shows a top 
view of a truck. For the bed of this cut a three-eighths- 



inch board twelve inches long by two and one-quarter 

inches wide, and, after rounding the ends as shown in the 

drawing, cut a mortise at A and B two and three-eighths 

inches from either end. Procure two one 

and one-half inch spools for wheels, and 

drive a wooden peg through the hole in 

each, cutting off the ends so they project 

a little beyond the hole, as shown in Fig. 

80. Then bore four holes in the edges of 

the truck-bed with a gimlet at C, D, E, 

and F (see drawing), and, after setting the 

spools in mortises A and B, pivot them in 

place with small finishing nails driven into the wooden 

pegs. These nails should fit loosely in the gimlet holes. 

In order to drive them into the exact centers of the 

spools, it is best to locate these points upon the ends of 

Fig. 80. — Spool 


Brass Rtog 





Fig. 81. —The Completed Car Truck. 

the pegs before placing the spools in the frame. A quarter- 
inch hole should be bored in the top of the truck-bed at G 
and // (Fig. 79) in which to fasten the two uprights / and 
/ (see Fig. 81). Make the uprights four inches long and 


whittle a peg upon the lower ends to fit holes G and 
H (see Fig. 82). Bore a hole with a gimlet in the top of 
each and run a piece of heavy wire from one to the other, 
bending it as shown in Fig. 81. Fasten K between / 
and /, as shown. Place a small brass ring upon the wire 
before you fasten it in place. A small hook should be 
screwed into one end of the truck and a screw-eye into 
the other end, for couplings, should you wish to hitch two 
or more cars together. 

A Gondola Car, such as shown in Fig. 83, should have 
its truck made similar to Fig. 79, with the exception that 


Fig. 83. — A Gondola Car. 

it should be two inches shorter, in order that cigar-box 
strips can be used for the side pieces. Cut the strips an 
inch and one-half high and fasten them to the bed of the 
car with brads. This car may be used as a trailer. 

The car shown in Fig. 81 is a rather crude affair, but 
with a little more work may be transformed into a better 
looking car — 

A Street Car such as is shown in Figs. 84 and 85 being 
an example of what can be made. The sides, ends, and 
roof of this car are made of cardboard, the patterns for 



the cutting of which are shown on page 55. Figure 86 
shows a cross-section taken through the center of the car. 
The two side pieces A should be prepared first, as shown 
in Fig. 87. With a ruler and lead-pencil draw in the 
windows about as shown in the drawing, using double lines 
to indicate the sash. Then, with a sharp knife, cut out 
the center of each just inside of the inner line. These 
windows may be left open or may be covered on the in- 
side with tissue-paper. If tissue-paper is used, oil it to 



cook • City • Raolwa - -. • C ; 

Fig. 84. — Side View. 

Fig. 85. — End View. 

make it more transparent. When the two sides have 
been prepared, bend each along the dotted lines (see Fig. 
87) and tack one to each side of your car truck as shown 
in Fig. 86. When properly bent, the distance between 
the upper part of the sides should be two and three-quarters 
inches. Cut the two inner ends of the car the shape of 
Fig. 88, using a compass with a radius of two and one-half 
inches with which to describe the curve at the top. Draw 
in the panels and sash lines as you did those upon the 
side pieces, being careful to get them on the same level, 


and cut out the door and window openings. Fasten 
these end pieces between the sides with glue, and also 
tack them to the uprights of the car (/ and /, Fig. 81), 
which will come just inside of them. The roof is made 
in two sections (B and C, Fig. 86). For B cut a piece of 
cardboard twelve and one-quarter by three and three- 
quarter inches (Fig. 89), draw the curved end with a com- 
pass, using the radius shown on the drawing, and slit the 
corners as indicated by the dotted lines. When this 
piece has thus been prepared, remove the wire from the 
top of the truck (see Fig. 81). Bend the cardboard over 
the sides and ends of the car, and lap corners D and E 
over F and G, and H and / over / and K, tacking them 
with thread to hold them in place. To fasten this part 
of the roof to the top of the car, cut a number of small 
strips of linen, and glue them to the under side of the roof 
and to the inside face of the sides and ends of the car 
(see Fig. 86). The upper portion of the roof C should be 
made out of a piece of cardboard bent into the shape of 
Fig. 90, and cut at the ends so the upper portion of C 
projects a little beyond its sides. Draw the ventilation 
lights upon the sides of C as shown on the drawings, and 
then fasten the piece upon the top of B with strips of 
linen in the same manner as you fastened B in place. 
C should now have the same curve to its top as B. Cut 
and glue a piece of cardboard in each end of C to complete 
the roof. The shape of this piece is shown in Fig. 91. 
The outer ends of the car should be made as shown in 

Fig. 91 


Fig. 86 

H* B 








Fig. 90 





Fig. 87 



I I 

Fig. 94 




Fig. 93 Fig. 92 Fig. 88 

Figs. 86-94. — Details of Toy Street Car. 



Fig. 92, and tacked around the ends of the wooden truck 
platform, and also fastened to the under side of the roof 
with strips of linen. The window openings may be cut 
in each end, but it will make a stronger car if they are 
simply drawn upon it. Cut four cardboard steps similar 
to Fig. 93 and tack them to the sides of the front and rear 
platforms. When the car has been put together, replace 
the wire in the tops of uprights / and J (Fig. 81), run- 
ning the ends through the roof (see Fig. 84). Paint the 
sides and ends of the car yellow with brown trimmings, 
and paint the roof a light gray. Water colors can be used 
for the purpose. Letter the name of your car-line upon 
the sides and the number of the car upon each end and 
side. The route should be lettered upon strips of card- 
board with pins run through them as shown in Fig. 94, 
these strips to stick in the roof of the car (see Figs. 84 
and 85). 

Having seen how the car is made, you will find it a 
simple matter to make designs for 

Other Cars, using the same scheme for the trucks, and 
altering the patterns for the sides, ends, and roof, to suit 
the design. 

Nothing has, as yet, been said about the 

Operation of the Railway, and though Fig. 76 probably 
shows sufficiently clear how it is run, a few words may 
be helpful. The car or cars are placed between the wooden 
tracks, and the trolley (or cord attached to the ring on 
top of the car) is tied to the trolley-line as in the illus- 



tration. Upon starting your engine, water-motor, or 
whatever motive-power you have, the car will run from 
one end of the track to the other. When it has reached the 
support of the trolley-line, it will stop long enough for 
the cord trolley to pass around the wooden wheel, and 
then run in the opposite direction until the other support 
is reached. It will thus be seen that the trolley hangs to 
the upper part of the cable, or trolley-line, in running 
one way, and to the lower part on the return run. In 

Fig. 95. — The Railway Depot. 

changing the direction of the run, the ring to which the 
trolley is attached slides to the other end of the car. 

A Station such as is illustrated in Fig. 95 is made out 
of cardboard and mounted upon a seven-eighths-inch 
board large enough to form a railway platform. After 
cutting out the side and end pieces, with door and win- 
dow openings placed as shown in the illustration, fasten 
them together with strips of linen glued in the corners. 
Make the roof low and extend it over the platform upon 
each side and over the gable-ends, as shown in the illus- 
tration. Paint the sides of the depot the regulation 
depot red, and the roof a shingle or slate color. Paint 


the door and window-sash black, letter the name of the 
station upon the gable-ends, and with a ruler and lead- 
pencil rule off the boards upon the sides, and the slate 
or shingles upon the roof. As this is a typical railway 
station, two may be made of the same pattern, one for 
either end of your car line. 


The elevator shown in Fig. 96 is a unique mechanical toy 
well worth one's making. Release the little car at the top 
floor, and it will descend to the ground floor, and then 
return to the starting point, without you having to touch 
it a second time. A magical elevator? Perhaps so. A 
little mechanical device performs the trick. 

The same plan may be followed for installing the doll- 
house elevator in Chapter XIII, but the more stories there 
are the more fun there is in operating the elevator. This is 
why I have adapted the scheme to 

A Toy Office Building. Six stories are shown in Fig. 96, 
but you can make a modern sky-scraper with as many 
stories as you like. A packing-case 3 feet 6 inches long, 
stood on end, was used for the model. Another box or two 
can be added to the top for additional stories. Besides the 
box, or boxes, get enough box boards for floors and parti- 

Make the Floors in two pieces (A and B, Fig. 98), so the 
opening for the elevator shaft can be cut out of the end of 
one piece in the manner shown. This opening should be 
about 5 inches square. Mark out and cut the boards for all 




of the floors at one time, and be careful to get the shaft 
opening the same in each floor. Cut the notch C in board 

A about i inch square. 
Fasten the floor 
boards in place with 
nails driven through 
the sides of the box. 
The Partitions, a 
pattern for which is 
shown in Fig. 99, can 
be made quicker by 
omitting the doorway, 
but this is easy to cut 
by sawing along the 
sides and then split- 
ting out the piece be- 
tween the saw cuts. 

The Elevator Car 
should be built up of 
cigar-box wood, as 
shown in Figs. 101 and 
102. The front portion 
(D) should be about 3 
inches wide, 2\ inches 
deep, and 4 inches high, 
and the rear portion 

Fig. 96.— A Toy Office Building with Elevator. 

(E) should be of the same width, 2 inches deep, and 2\ 
inches high. Fasten these upon the base piece F as shown. 


The Elevator Guides. Bore the holes G through the 
top and bottom of the car, close to the sides, for guide 
wires H to run through (Figs. 101 and 102). These holes 
may be bored with a screw-eye if you haven't a gimlet or 
drill. Bell-wire, or almost any wire that you have on 
hand, will do for the guides. Fasten two screw-eyes into 
the under side of the top of the shaft, the same distance 
apart as holes G, and in the proper position so they will 
come exactly over them (/, Fig. 100). Use the car for 
determining these measurements. Then bore two holes 
through the bottom of the shaft directly below the screw- 
eyes (/, Fig. 100). Attach the wire to one screw-eye, run 
it down through holes G in the car, through one of the holes 
/, then across to and up through the other hole /, up 
through the other set of holes G in the car, and attach to 
the second screw-eye /. 

The Cables. The elevator is lifted by means of cord L 
(Figs. 97 and 101). Fasten this cord to a tack driven into 
the top of the car, then run it up and over spool M (Figs. 
97 and 101), over spool A 7 (Fig. 97), and tie to weight K, 

The Counter-balance. A bottle x filled with sand to 
make it weigh more than twice as much as the car, should 
be used for this. Screw a small screw-eye into the cork 
to tie the cord to. 

The counter-balance runs up and down in 

The Smoke-Stack, which is fastened to the back of the 
building (Fig. 97). Make the stack of cardboard mailing- 
tubes, joining them end to end with bands of paper pasted 






around them. Fasten the 
stack to the back of the 
building with wire straps, 
and brace the top as 
shown in Fig. 96, but 
leave it unattached until 
you have adjusted 

The Overhead Pulleys, 
or sheaves. These are 
spools. You will see by 
looking at Fig. 100 that 
spool M turns on the axle 
O, and the ends of this 
axle are cut to fit snugly 
in screw-eyes /. 

Fasten pulley spool N in 
the smoke-stack by means 
of a wooden axle pushed 
through holes pierced in 
the side of the stack, as is 
shown in the small draw- 
ing above, Fig. 97. Bore 
a hole through the back 
of the building for the 
cable cord L to run 
through (P, Figs. 97 and 
100), and cut another 
through the smoke-stack. 

Fig. 97. — Section through Elevator Shaft. 


How the Car Operates. When the weight and cord 
have been adjusted and the smoke-stack erected, the ele- 
vator will run from the ground floor up to the roof of its 
own accord, because the counter-balance is much heavier 
than the car. To make it descend it is necessary to add 
weight to the car, to make it enough heavier than the 
counter-balance so it will drop of its own accord. This is 
done with 

Ballast consisting of a bottle of sand or salt of twice 
the combined weight of counter-balance K and the car. 
After filling the bottle, cork it up, and screw a screw-eye 
into the cork. Then 
screw the eye of a 
2-inch hook-and-eye 
into the roof of the 
building, directly over 

the center of box E of the elevator (R, Figs. 97 and 101), 
and attach one end of a rubber-band to the hook and tack 
the other end to the top of the elevator-shaft (Fig. 101). 

With the hook and rubber-band properly adjusted, this 
is what happens when the car ascends to the top of the 
shaft. The bottom of the rear portion of the car strikes 
bottle Q, lifts it enough to release the end of the hook (R), 
and the rubber-band springs the hook out of the way 
(Fig. 97). The bottle remains upon the rear portion of 
the car, and its weight carries the car to the bottom of the 

To Make the Car Rise to the top of the shaft again, re- 

A : 

Fig. 98. — Floors. Fig. 99. —Partitions. 

\ Na£/>4?JV 


















/Screw-eye (i) 

f /SPOOL (M) 



Fig. 102 

Fig. ioo. — Front View of Elevator Shaft. 
Figs, ioi and 102. — Elevator Car Details. 



move bottle Q. Replace the bottle upon the end of hook 
R, and it will be in position for the next trip downwards. 
Cut the holes Y and Z (Fig. 100) through the out- 
side wall of the shaft for hand holes through which 
to reach bottle Q and hook R. 
Figures 97, 100, and 103 show 
A Simple Control for stopping the car at the 
different floor levels. Stick 5 may be a piece of 
broom-handle, curtain-pole, or flagstaff. Bore a 
hole through the bottom of the shaft, directly be- 
low holes C in the floors (T, Fig. 100), and slip 
the stick through hole T and into slots C. Then 
locate on one side of stick 5 points just below 
the under face of each floor, and upon the opposite 
side locate points just above where the back edge 
of the elevator will come when the car is raised to 
each floor level (Fig. 97). Remove the stick, and 
drill or bore a small hole at each point marked; 
then replace it, nail a small 
block (U, Fig. 100) across the 
top end to hold it in place, and 
drive a nail, with its head filed 

Fig. 103.— Detail of Brake and off, into each of the holes. 

Controlling Levers. ^^ ^ s ^ tumed tQ ^ 

position shown in Fig. 97, while the car is going down, 
the first nail below the car will project beneath it and 
bring it to a stop; and if the stick is turned in the 
opposite direction while the elevator is going up, the 



first nail above the car will project over the back edge 

of portion E and 


bring the car to a 

f^o 5^<^Z^f[ 



1 stop. 


Two Levers oper- 

1 W 


ate the brakes (IF, 


ll p 


Figs. 97 and 100). 


* ii 




*^H[ j 

Cut these of the 
shape shown in Fig. 
103, and screw one 
to each side wall. 
Then tack a piece 
of cord to stick S, 


wrap the ends of the 


cord once around, 

slip them through 

screw-eyes V screwed 

1 : 

into the side walls, 
and tie to tacks 
driven into levers W. 
One series of brakes 
can now be set by 


ill ■«//«». ! 


pulling forward one 

lever, and the other 

Fig. 104. — An Outdoor Elevator. 

^2fV*«'- series by pulling for- 

ward the other lever. 
By driving a nail 


stick S 

at X (Fig 

. 100), 


Ld a nail into the bottom of 



the shaft, each side of stick S, the levers will turn the stick 
just far enough in either direction to bring the brakes into 

If there is a kitchen porch to your house, construct 

The Outdoor Ele- 
vator shown in Fig. 
104 to run from the 
ground up to that 
porch. If you live 
in an upper story of 
an apartment build- 
ing, your elevator 
can be made to run 
to a greater height, 
which, of course, will 
make more fun. 

It will save con- 
siderable work to use 
the porch, because 
for one thing you 
will not have to 
build an upper plat- 

Fig. 105. — Supports for Elevator Guides and Cables. 

form to stand upon 

to reach the elevator car when it runs to the top, and for 
another thing the supports for the guides and cable can 
be fastened directly to one of the porch posts. 
Figure 105 shows a large detail of 
The Guide Supports. Cross strips A, B, and C should be 


1 8 or 20 inches long, about 2 inches wide, and iinch thick. 
At a distance of about 1 inch from one end of strips A and 
B screw a screw-eye into one edge, and 8 inches from those 
eyes screw a second screw-eye (D, Fig. 105). Screw-eyes 
with § inch eyes are large enough. A dozen will cost about 
5 cents at the hardward store. The elevator guides are 
fastened to these. 

Besides the screw-eyes there must be two clothes-line 
pulleys for the cable to run over. These cost 5 cents 
apiece. Screw one pulley into the edge of strip B, half- 
way between the two screw-eyes D (E, Fig. 105), the other 
into an edge of strip C at the same distance from the end 
that you have placed the pulley in strip B (F, Fig. 105). 

Nail strip A to the porch post as close to the ground as 
you can get it, strip B to the same face of the same post, 
about 18 inches above the porch railing, and strip C to the 
opposite face of the post at the same height as strip B. 
Nail these strips securely in place. 

If you cannot find a starch-box or other small box out 
of which to make 

The Car, go to a grocery store. You will be sure to find 
just what you want there. It is not likely that the grocer 
will charge you anything for a small box like this. If 
you have placed screw-eyes D 8 inches apart, as directed, 
the width of the box should be a trifle less than this meas- 
urement, but if the box you pick up is wider the screw- 
eyes can be spaced as much farther apart as is necessary to 
accommodate it. 



i 06. — Elevator 

Figure 106 shows how the box is converted into the car. 
Screw two screw-eyes into each side of the box, one above 
the other, as shown at G, for the elevator guides to run 
through, screw another into the exact 
center of the top (H) to tie the hoisting 
cable to, and screw another into the exact 
center of the bottom to tie the lowering 
cable to. Nail a narrow strip across the 
open front of the car, at the bottom, to 
keep things from falling out. 

Get heavy wrapping-twine or stovepipe 
wire for 

The Guides. Attach these guides to 
screw-eyes D in strip B, first, drop them through screw- 
eyes G in the sides of the car, and then fasten to screw- 
eyes D in strip A . 

The Counter-balance is a large can filled 
with earth, sand, or small stones. Its 
weight must be equal to about three times 
that of the empty car. Fasten the lifting 
cable through holes punched in opposite 
sides of the can (Fig. 107). 

Use a strong wrapping- twine for 
The Lifting Cable. After tying this to 
the counter-balance, run it over pulley F, 
then over pulley E, and tie to screw-eye 77 in the top of 
the car. The cable must be of the right length so when 
the counter-balance has dropped to the ground the car 

P'ig. 107. — Counter- 


will come just above the porch railing, as shown in 
Fig. 104. Tie 

The Lowering Cable to the screw-eye screwed into the 
under side of the car. 

As long as the weight of the car and its load remains 
less than half of that of the counter-balance, the counter- 
balance will drop and by so doing lift the car. The cable 
attached to the bottom must be pulled to lower the car. 

Those of you boys who own a tree-hut, or intend to build 
one, 1 should erect an elevator similar to the one just de- 
scribed, for hoisting supplies to the hut. 

1 Plans for building Tree-Huts, and a Dumb-Waiter for supplies, are 
given in Chapter XXV of " The Handy Boy." 


Those of you boys who have examined the little mechan- 
ical toys sold upon the street corners just before Christmas 
probably have been surprised to find how simply they are 
made, and perhaps it has never occurred to you that you 
might make toys equally as good for presents for your 
younger brothers, sisters, or cousins. Most of the smaller 
mechanical toys are not only easy to make, but they re- 
quire materials which cost little and can usually be picked 
up at home. Sometimes it takes considerable thinking 
and planning to discover just the things which can be 
adapted to the various parts of toys ; but that is where 
part of the fun of toy making comes in. 

A Buzz-Saw Whirligig is an interesting toy (Fig. 108). 
Lay out a disk about 5 inches in diameter upon a piece of 
cardboard, locate the position for the spool-end on the 
center of each face, and make four rings outside of this. 
Divide the circumference of the disk into sixteen equal 
parts, and lay off the teeth as shown. (Fig. in.) The 
spool-ends used for centers should have two holes drilled 
through them for the twisting cord to slip through, and 
should be fastened to the disk with glue or brads. 




A cotton string is best for 

Operating the Whirligig. After slipping it through the 
holes in the spool-ends, tie the ends together. To work 
the toy, slip the first finger of each hand through the loop 

of each end, and whirl the 
disk in one direction until the 
string is twisted from both 
ends as far as the center. 
Then pull firmly on the ends 
of the string, and the disk 
will whirl in the opposite di- 
rection until the string is un- 
twisted and twisted up again 
in the opposite direction. As 
the strings twist, slacken your 
hold upon the ends, and when 
it has wound up tight pull 
again to make it whirl in the 
opposite direction. The disk 
should whirl very steadily 
when working right, and the 
knack of making the string 
twist so the disk will do so is attained with a little 

The Clog-Dancer (Fig. 109) is an easily made loose- 
jointed doll. His dancing-stage is a shingle or piece of 
stiff cardboard held on the edge of a chair beneath your 
knee. He is held by means of the string attached to his 

Fig. hi. — Detail of Buzz-Saw Whirli- 
gig shown in Fig. 108. 

Fig. 109.— The Eccentric Clog- 
dancer is A Circus in himself. 

Fig. 110.— Pull the string and 
Jack jumps comically. 



head, so that his feet rest 
lightly upon the stage, and 
he is made to jig by tap- 
ping the outer end of the 
stage with the free hand. 
With a little practice the 
figure can be made to go 
through the steps of the 
most eccentric clog- 

The more grotesque the 
dancer's appearance is, the 
more amusing his dancing 
will be, so the cruder you 
make him the better. 
Figure 112 shows the 
working details for his 
construction. The center 
part of a thread-spool 
forms the head, and a 
spool-end and the rounded 
end of a broom-handle 
form the hat. These three 
pieces are nailed together. 
The body is a piece of a 
broom-handle, and a 
spool-end nailed to it 
forms the shoulders. Drive 






(6-1 N.LONG) 

2-1 N.LONG 


*— — 2i-IN.L0NG 

2-1 N. LONG 

Fig. 112. — Details of Body of the Clog- 
Dancer shown in Fig. 109. 



a nail into the end of the body, tie a string to this, and 
run the string up through the hole in the head, and out 

x through a hole in the 

hat ; tie the string to a 
fancy-work ring. 

The arms and legs are 
made of sticks whittled 
to the lengths marked 
in Fig. 112, and about 
| inch in diameter, and 
are jointed by driving 
tacks into their ends 
and connecting these 
with heavy linen thread. 
Figure 112 shows how 
the feet and hands are 
cut, and how tacks are 
driven into them for the 
thread connections. 
Paint the clog-dancer's 
body, arms, and legs 
2-1 N. WIDE white, his head, hands, 

Fig. 113.— Details of Body of the Jumping- an< i feet black, and 
Tack shown in Fig. no. , , . 

mark his eyes, nose, 
and mouth upon his face in white. 

A Toy Jumping- Jack is always amusing, and Fig. no 
shows a simply constructed home-made model. You will 
see by Fig. 113 how the figure is made. The peaked hat 


is half a spool tapered down from the end to the center; 
and the head is the center from a darning-cotton spool, 
shaped down at one end for a neck, and with eyes, nose, and 
mouth cut in on one side. Figure 113 shows the diagrams 
for the front and back of the body, the arms, and the legs. 
These are cut out of cigar-box wood. Cut the neck stick 
A long enough to run through the head and hat, with a 
square block on the end to fit between the body pieces. 
The blocks B should be of the same thickness as block A. 
Bore the pivotal holes through the arms and legs in the 
positions shown, using a small gimlet or red-hot nail with 
which to do the boring, and tie a piece of heavy linen thread 
through each as shown. The arms and legs are pivoted on 
brads driven through the front of the body into the back. 

When the body has been fastened together, bring the 
ends of the threads together, and tie to a small ring ; also 
knot the threads close to the body to keep them together. 
In painting Jack, you might provide him with a red coat, 
blue trousers and a blue hat, white stockings, and black 

A Cricket-Rattle is about the liveliest form of rattle 
ever devised (Fig. 114). After constructing one for your 
sister or brother, you probably will decide to make one for 
yourself. For this rattle, first prepare a notched spool {A, 
Fig. 116). The notches in this need not be cut as perfectly 
as shown, but the notches in one end of the spool must be 
exactly opposite those in the other end. Whittle the handle 
B to the shape and size shown, cut the strips C out of cigar- 

7 6 


box wood, and prepare the block D as shown. The groove 
in the edge of D is cut of just the right width to receive the 
end of the wooden strip E. The length of E is best deter- 
mined after nailing the ends of strips C to D, and slipping 




^y "CI I GAR-BOX WOOD • 6-1 N. LONG 1 * 1 

Fig. ii6. — Details of the Noisy Cricket-Rattle shown Fig. 114. 

the handle through the holes in strips C and spool A. It 
should extend from the groove in D into the notches in A. 
Make it as wide as the spool is high. Paint the rattle red 
or blue. 

The Turtle Toy which crawls along the floor when you 
alternately pull and slacken a thread that runs through 
its shell, has always been one of the most popular of mechan- 
ical toys, and you will be surprised to find how easily our 
home-made model shown in Fig. 1 1 5 is put together. The 
shell is a small tin mold such as is used for molding jellies. 
One about 4 inches long costs 10 cents. A mold having the 

Fig. 114.— Whirling the Cricket-rattle makes it chirp. 

Fig. 115.— The Crawling Turtle's shell is a Jelly Mould. 



form of a bunch of grapes is a pretty good form for the 
turtle shell, as you will see by the illustrations. 

The head, the tail, and the four feet are cut out of tin from 
a can, and bent into the forms shown in Fig. 117. Then 
slits are cut through the narrow rim of the mold by piercing 
the tin with the point of a nail at the proper places for 
attaching them, as shown in the small detail drawing, and 


s*\ BANDS- 


Fig. 117 Fig. 118 

Fig. 117. — How Head, Feet, and Tail are Attached to a Jelly Mold to Make 
the Turtle shown in Fig. 115. 

Fig. 118. — The Spool Wheels and the Rubber-Bands which Propel them. 

the tab ends are pushed through the slits, bent over, and 
clinched with a pair of pincers. 

A thread spool i\ inches long forms the wheels on which 
the turtle runs, and two rubber-bands ij inches long 
propel it. Cut a piece of a lead pencil a trifle longer then 
the spool, split it into halves, remove the lead, and insert 
the rubber bands in the groove ; then slip the piece of pencil 


into the hole in the spool (Fig. 118). The rubber-band 
ends must project an equal distance beyond the spool-ends. 
Before fastening the spool to the tin mold shell, tie the end 
of a piece of heavy linen thread to its center, and then 
wind about twenty turns about it. Pierce a hole through 
each side of the mold a trifle in front of the center, and 
after slipping pieces of string through the ends of the rubber- 
bands (Fig. 1 1 8), tie them through the holes pierced through 
the sides of the mold. Pierce a hole through the shell, 
directly over the center of the spool, slip the free end of 
the thread wound on the spool through this hole, and 
tie it to a fancy-work ring (Fig. 117). 

To Make the Turtle Crawl, place it upon the floor, pull 
on the ring, and as the thread unwinds from the spool the 
rubber-bands will twist ; then slacken the thread, and the 
turtle will crawl along the floor. As the rubber-bands 
untwist, the thread will wind up on the spool again. Con- 
tinue pulling and slackening the thread alternately, and the 
turtle will continue to crawl. 


There are many styles of tops, probably more than you 
ever dreamed of, and it will surprise you to hear that the 
owners of some of the most curious forms are bearded men 
who take as much delight as any girl or boy in spinning 
them. A few years ago on Murray Island, which is way 
down among the South Sea Islands, top spinning took 
such a strong hold upon the attention of the natives that 
they neglected their work, and families often were without 
food, boys and girls having to go to school hungry. 
Matters became so serious, in fact, as a result of this fad 
for top spinning, that, finally, the head chieftain was com- 
pelled to restrict it to certain days. There are many ex- 
perts among these South Sea Islanders. The men sing songs 
while their tops spin, cheer them on, and take the greatest 
precautions to shelter them from wind. An eye witness 
of a contest reported that the winning top spun 27 min- 
utes, which you must admit is a pretty long time. 

Whip-tops and peg-tops of several varieties can be pur- 
chased at the corner candy store, but the kinds I am 
going to show you how to make cannot be bought any- 




Clock Wheel Tops. A splendid spinner can be made of 
the little balance-wheel of a broken clock (Fig. 119). 
This little wheel is so accurately made that it will spin 
very steadily from a minute and one-half to two minutes. 

Fig. 119 

Fig. 120 

Fig. 121 


Fig. 123 

Fig. 124 

Figs. 119 and 120. — Clock Wheel Tops. 

Fig. 121. — Upholstering Tack Top. 

Fig. 122. — How to Hold Upholstering Tack for Spinning. 

Figs. 123 and 124. — Details of Spool Top. 

As the ends of this wheel's axle are pointed, the top will 
stand in one spot as long as it spins. 

The toothed wheel shown in Fig. 120, or any of the other 
forms of wheels from a clockwork will make good spinners, 
yet, unless you file their pivot ends to points, they will not 
spin in one spot but will glide and hop over the table in 
spirals. The friction thus produced decreases the length 
of time that they will spin, but makes them none the less 


interesting as tops. Great fun may be had spinning these 
wheel tops around the balance-wheel top, while the latter 
is spinning. Figure 129 shows how to hold a clock wheel 
between the thumb and first finger, for spinning. Start it 
with a snapping movement of the fingers. 

A Rug-Tack Top. A rug tack or large upholstering tack 
is another good spinner. While the clockwork wheels are 
spun by twirling them by means of the upper end of the 
pivots, the tack top is spun by holding the spinning point 
between the thumb and first 
finger, as shown in Fig. 122, 
then giving it a quick twirl 
and dropping it upon a table. 
The tack top is an eccentric 
spinner. First it hops about 
in a very lively fashion ; then, 
when you think it is about ~W" 
ready to topple over, it re- FlG i25 _ A shoe . Polish Can Top . 
gains its balance and for some 

seconds spins quite as steadily as the clockwork balance- 
wheel top. The tack top can be spun upon its head as 
well as upon its point. 

A Spool Top. The top in Fig. 123 is made from a half of 
a spool and a short piece of lead-pencil. Saw a spool into 
halves, and then taper one half from its beveled end to the 
center. Sharpen the piece of pencil to a point, and push it 
through the spool until its point projects just a trifle. 
Spin the spool top in the same way as the clock wheel tops. 



A Spinning Top Race-Track. By drawing a track upon 
a piece of cardboard, as shown in Fig. 129, with an opening 
on the inside, great fun may be had by starting any one 
of the small tops just described, with the exception of the 

balance-wheel top, in 
the center of the 
space inside of the 
track, and tilting 
the cardboard so as 
to cause the top to 
spin through the 
opening on to the 
track, and around 
the track. There is 
a trick in keeping 
the top from run- 
ning off the track 
that can be acquired 
only with practice. 

A Shoe-Polish Can 
Top (Fig. 125). This 
is a sure-enough good 
looking top, and it 
spins as well as it looks. It is made of a pencil, a cone- 
shaped piece cut from a spool, similar to the top shown 
in Fig. 123, and an empty shoe-polish can. 

The dotted line in Fig. 126 indicates how the end of the 
pencil sticks through a hole in the shoe-polish can, then 

Fig. 128 Fig. 127 

Figs. 126-128. — Details of Shoe-Polish Can Top 



through the cone-shaped piece of spool. The hole through 
the can must be located in the exact center, so the top 
will balance properly. To find the center, place the box 
bottom down upon a piece of paper, and with a pencil 
draw a line around it. Cut the paper along the center, and 
you will have a piece ^_^ 
the shape and size of f? 
the can bottom. 
Fold the piece in 
half, then in half 
again the other way 
(Fig. 127), open it 
up, and the inter- 
section of the two 
folds, indicated by 
dotted lines in Fig. 
128, will be the ex- 
act center. With 
the center located, 
place the piece of 
paper first upon the 
bottom, then upon 
the top of the can, and punch a hole through the center 
of it and the can, with the point of a large nail. Increase 
the size of the hole enough to admit the pencil. 

Spin this top in the manner shown in Fig. 125. Hold 
the upper part of the pencil between your hands, with the 
palms together, and slide your hands back and forth, first 

Fig. 129. — A Spinning Top 

8 4 


Fig. 130. — A Spiral Top. 

slowly, then rapidly. Release it so as to cause it to drop 
squarely upon its point upon a level wooden surface. 
The steadiness of this top's spinning 
will depend entirely upon the ac- 
curacy with which you cut the center 
hole for the pencil. 

A Spiral Top. The top in Fig. 
130 presents a curious appearance 
while spinning, the spiral design 
upon it seeming to change its 
form as the top revolves. 

The only difference between the construction of this 
top and the shoe- 
polish can top is in 
the substitution of 
the spiral disk for 
the polish can. A 
pencil and cone- 
shaped piece of 
spool are required 
as in the case of the 
other top. 

The spiral design 
for the disk, shown 
in Fig. 131, is large 
enough so you can 
make a tracing of it on a piece of transparent paper, 
and then trace it off upon a piece of cardboard. Fill 

Fig. 131. — Diagram of Spiral for Spiral Top. 



in alternate rings with black ink or water-color, in the 
way shown, then cut out the disk, pierce a hole through 
its exact center to fit over the pencil end, and glue the 
under side to the top of the cone-shaped piece of spool. 
Spin this top in the same way as the shoe-polish can top is 
spun (Fig. 125). 

A Merry-go-round Top (Fig. 132) is a new idea easily 
carried out. You will require a cardboard disk 12 inches 

Fig. 132. — A Merry-go-round Top. 

in diameter, three spools, a pencil, and some light-weight 

Figure 133 shows the details for this top. If you haven't 
a compass, use a large-sized dinner plate with which to 
draw the circumference of the disk (A). Then cut a 
conical-shaped piece of spool (B), stick the lead-pencil 
through it for a spinning point (C), punch a hole through the 
disk to fit over the pencil, and tack the disk to B. Cut 



off a third of the length of a 
ribbon spool for E, and 
fasten another spool (D) to 
the top of the pencil. Spool 
D should be glued fast to 
the pencil, and the spool- 
end E should turn loosely 
upon it. Coat the lower part 
of the pencil with glue so it 
will stick fast in B. 

How the Top Spins. 
When you have made this 
much of the top, spin it 
to see how it works. Wrap 
the spinning cord — a strong 
lightweight wrapping-twine 
— about spool D, in the same 
manner that you wind the cord on any top ; then, holding 
spool end E with the left hand (Fig. 132), pull steadily 
upon the cord with the right hand 
until all is unwound, and gently ) 

drop the top upon its spinning 
point. To get the best results, the f — 
cardboard used for the disk plat- A 

under a pile of books. „ " TT TT " 

r ig. 1 34. — How Horses are 

Horses and Riders for the merry- Mounted upon Top platform. 



Detail of Merry-go-round 

form must be very straight 
warps, flatten it by pressing 


go-round may be prepared like those of the clockwork 
merry-go-round in Chapter X (Figs. 143, 146, and 147). 
Figure 134 shows how two burnt matches or toothpicks 
are lashed to the legs of the horses for supports, and 
Fig. 133 shows how holes are pierced through the disk 
platform to stick them in. 

A Flag mounted upon spool D will make the merry-go- 
round top complete. 


The toys shown opposite page 90 are a few of the many 
mechanical toys which can be operated by clockwork, 
and they are easy to make, too, requiring no more mechan- 
ical ability than is possessed by the average boy old enough 
to handle the simplest of tools. 

Generally it is easy to find an old clock somewhere 
about the house, and a clock which has been discarded 
simply because it has become worthless as a timekeeper 
is perfectly good for operating these toys, provided the 
mainspring is in working order. It is not necessary to 
have a set of works for each toy, for they are so quickly 
fastened in place that but a minute is required to transfer 
the works from one toy to another. 

Before commencing work upon the toys, get together 

The Other Necessary Materials. These will consist of 
cigar boxes, cardboard, cotton or silk spools, glue, brads, 
and a few pieces from the woodpile, with one or two ad- 
ditional articles which are mentioned later on. Brads 
I inch and 1 inch in length should be purchased for fas- 
tening the framework of the toys together, and the cigar 
boxes should be about 8 inches by 4 inches by 2 inches 



in size. Remove the paper from the boxes as described on 
page 175. 

To Prepare the Clockwork for use, remove it from its 
case, detach the hands and face, and pry off the small 
wheel pivoted directly under the hands ; this wheel is 
shown at A in Fig. 139. Remove also the balance-wheel 

Fig. 139. — How the Clockwork Motor is Fastened to the Cigar-Box Cover. 

(This Box has been cut down to the Proper Length for the Ferris Wheel.) 

B (Fig. 139) and the lever C pivoted next to it, to increase 
the speed of the remaining wheels. 

Fasten the clockwork motor for 

The Merry-go-round shown in Fig. 135 to the cover of 
a cigar box, as illustrated in Figs. 136 and 139, boring 


holes through the cover with a gimlet for the pivot ends 
on the back of the works to set into. Remove the lower 
flange from a spool (D, Fig. 139) and fasten the spool 
on to the central pivot of the clockwork in the position 
formerly occupied by wheel A. The hole in the spool 
will be too large for the pivot and must be rilled up with 
sealing-wax. To do this, hold a piece of sealing-wax 
above the spool and melt it with a lighted match, allow- 
ing it to drip into the hole until the latter is about half 
full, then press the wax down with the end of a match 
until it is compact, smooth it off on the bottom of the 
spool, and make a dent in it with a pencil to indicate the 
exact center of the hole. Heat the end of the pivot with 
a lighted match, and press it into the dent in the wax, 
being careful in doing so to get the spool straight upon 
the pivot. Cut a hole through the bottom of the cigar 
box belonging to the cover to which you have attached 
the works, for spool D to project through (Fig. 139). 

To Make the Standard for the merry-go-round, cut four 
strips of wood 8 inches long, and fasten one to each corner 
of the cigar box, turning the bottom side of the box up ; 
then cut a piece of J-inch board 10 inches square, locate its 
center F by drawing diagonal lines from corner to corner 
as shown in Fig. 140, bore a i-inch hole through it at this 
point for spool D (Fig. 136), and then nail the box to the 
center of the board as shown in Fig. 140. 

The Tent should be laid out upon heavy white paper 
as shown in Fig. 141. After describing a circle with a 

Fig. 136. A Clockwork Motor. 

Eig. 138. The "Flying 



radius of 9 inches, describe another circle within it with 
a radius of 7J inches, this inner circle (shown by dotted 
lines in the diagram) being 
drawn for a guide in fas- 

FiG. 140. — Plan of Top of Stand- 
ard for Merry-go-round. 

Fig. 141. — Pattern for Tent of Merry- 

tening the tent upon its tent-poles. Cut out the tent 

along the outer circle, and from it cut a triangular piece 

about the size of that included between lines KL and ML 

in the diagram. Cover the 

under edge of KL and the 

upper edge of ML with glue, lap 

KL over to about NL, and rub 

down the edges with a cloth to 

make as neat a joint between 

the pieces as possible (Fig. 142). Bore a hole through 

each corner of the standard top (G, H, I, and /, Fig. 140)? 

then cut four sticks 7 inches long, sandpaper them until 

smooth, and glue them into these holes for 

Fig. 142. — The Tent ready to be 
Fastened upon a Tent-Pole. 


The Tent-Poles. When the tent has dried, tack it to 
the ends of the poles, being careful to make it set evenly 
upon them ; cut a scalloped border out of red or blue 
paper and paste it to the edge all around as shown in 
Fig. 135, and stick a small flag in the peak. 

The Horses. A full-size pattern for these is shown in 
Fig. 143. Take a piece of tracing-paper or any thin trans- 

Fig. 143. — Full-size Pattern for the Horses of the Merry-go-round. 

parent paper, and place it over the pattern and make an 
exact copy ; then rub a soft lead-pencil over the other side 
of the paper, turn the paper over with the blackened side 
down, and transfer the drawing six times upon a piece of 
lightweight cardboard. Paint the horses with water-col- 


ors, using the pattern as a guide for shading and marking 
them, then cut them out with a sharp knife or a pair of 

Figure 144 shows the pattern for 

The Sleighs. Draw this out upon a piece of card- 
board, cut it out and fold along the dotted lines, then turn 

Fig. 144. — Pattern for the Merry-go-round Sleighs. 

in the flaps and glue them to the dashboard and to the 
back. Cut two seats by the pattern given, bend down 
the flaps and glue them to the sides of the sleigh, and 
make the back for the front seat like that on the back 
seat (Fig. 145). Then make another sleigh similar to 
the one just completed, for two are required for the merry- 
go-round. Paint the sleighs green or yellow with trim- 
mings of a lighter shade. 

Figure 136 shows 

The Shafts upon which the horses and sleighs are 
mounted. Cut them 5^ inches long, whittle them round, 


and rub them down with sandpaper. The shafts are 
fastened in a spool hub which has five holes bored in it (E, 
Fig. 136) ; bore the holes with a gimlet or small drill, 

marking them off first with a 
pencil to be sure of getting them 
spaced at equal distances. Point 
the ends of the shafts and glue 
them into the holes in the hub, 
then connect this spool to spool 
Fig. 145 —a Completed sleigh J) with a piece of a lead-pencil 

showing Attachment to Shaft. . , . /T -,. .*. 

2 inches long (.big. 136). 

To fasten the horses to the shafts, punch a hole through 
three of them at X (Fig. 143) and slip each one over a 
shaft, then tack the other three horses to the ends of these 
shafts at the point X. To fasten the sleighs to the re- 
maining shafts, glue one end of a piece of paper to the 
back of the front seat and the other end around the shaft 
(Fig. 145). 

The Girl Riders for the sleighs are shown full size in 
Fig. 146, and 

The Boy Riders for the horses are shown full size in 
Fig. 147. Make tracings from the patterns as you made 
that of the horse and prepare four girls and six boys. 
Paint their clothes in bright colors. Cut a second leg 
for each boy rider, so he can be made to sit astride of his 
horse, and glue the leg to his hip as shown in Fig. 148. 
Cut a slit in each seat of the sleigh and stick the flaps on 
the girl riders in them. 



For the Platform shown directly under the horses and 
sleighs in Fig. 135, cut a piece of cardboard 11 inches in 
diameter ; if you choose to make the Ferris wheel before 
the merry-go-round, you may use the center pieces re- 
moved in cutting out the rims, as noted in Fig. 153. Punch 

Fig. 146 

Fig. 146. — Full-size Pattern for 
the Girl Riders. 


Fig. 148. — How the 
Second Leg of the 
Boy is Attached. 

Fig. 147. — Full-size Pattern for the Boy Riders. 

a hole through the center of this disk large enough for the 
peg connecting spools D and E to slip through. This 
platform rests upon the top of spool D and revolves with it. 
To Operate the Merry-go-round. The key by which 
the mainspring is wound up is shown screwed in place on 
the under side of the cigar-box cover in Fig. 139. While 
winding the mainspring, it will be necessary to have some 


means of checking it so it will not unwind at the same 
time, and the best scheme for a check is to bore a small 
gimlet hole through the cover of the cigar box and stick 
a match through this and run it between the spokes of one 
of the clock wheels so as to prevent it from turning. Then 
when you have wound up the spring and are ready to start 
the merry-go-round, all you have to do is to pull out the 

The model of this toy which the author has before him 
runs for five minutes with one winding, and any boy can 
make one which will run as well if he follows the directions 
given and uses a reasonable amount of carefulness in the 

Other Animals than horses may be used if you wish to 
follow the arrangement of some of the latest merry-go- 
rounds, and pictures of these may be found among the 
colored cut-outs sold in the stationery stores, or if you 
can draw well, you may copy them from books and maga- 
zines. Great fun may be had by changing the positions 
of the boy riders, making them ride backward part of the 
time and sometimes two and three boys on a horse. 

Doubtless you have heard of the famous Ferris wheel, 
and a good many of you have ridden in the smaller wheels 
patterned after it, at the amusement parks, so you will be 
interested in making 

A Miniature Ferris Wheel like the one shown in Fig. 

The Standard for supporting the wheel (Fig. 149) 



consists of two triangular supports, one with a spool hub 
fastened to its top for the axle of the wheel to run through 
and the other with the cigar box inclosing the clockwork 
fastened to it. Figures 150, 151, and 152 show the con- 
struction of these supports. Cut strips P and Q 12 inches 
long and R 10 inches long, and trim off the upper ends of 
P and Q so when they are nailed together the lower ends 
will be 8 inches apart ; nail 
strip R to the lower ends of 
P and Q (Fig. 150). To 
fasten the spool hub to its 
support, smear one side of 
a piece of tape with glue 
and wind it several times 
around the spool (Fig. 151), 
then set the spool on top 
of the support and press the 
ends of the tape against the 
sides of strips P and Q (Fig. 

15 2 ). 
The Clockwork Motor for the Ferris wheel is fastened 

to the cover of a cigar box just as that for the merry- 
go-round was fastened (Fig. 139), but the length of the 
box is cut down as much as the clockwork will allow to 
make the box as square and compact as possible. 

It is very necessary to have the axle bearings exactly 
on a line in order to have the wheel run smoothly, so, in 
fastening the cigar box to its support, be sure that the cen- 

Fig. 149. — Standard for the Ferris 

9 8 


ter of the hole in spool D (Fig. 139) is on a level with the 
spool hub on the opposite support. Nail the supports to a 
10-inch by 12-inch board, 8 inches apart, and fasten a 
cigar box between them for 
The Station Platform (Fig. 149). 

To Make the Wheel, first lay out the rims upon a piece 
of heavy cardboard, using the radii shown in Fig. 153 

for describing the circles, 
then lay the sheet of card- 
board upon a board and 

Cut out the Rims with 
a sharp knife, being careful 
not to run off of the pencil 
line. The 

Hubs of the wheel are 
spools with six holes bored 
in them for the spokes to 
fit in (Fig. 156). Cut six 

Spokes 5! inches long 
by I inch thick for each 
hub, and cut a slot in one 
end of each for the cardboard rims to fit in (Figs. 154 
and 157). Use a saw rather than a knife in making the 
slots, for it will make a kerf of just the right width to 
receive the cardboard and will not be so apt to split the 
ends of the slender spokes. Whittle the hub ends of the 
spokes to fit the holes in the spool hubs (Figs. 154 and 
157)- In 

Fig. 150. — Make Two Supports like 
this for the Ferris Wheel Standard. 

Figs. 151 and 152. — How a Spool is 
Fastened to the Top of the Support 
for a Hub. 



Fig- 153 Fig- 154 Fig. 155 

Fig. 153. — How to Lay out the Cardboard Rims of the Ferris Wheel. 

Fig. 154. —The Spokes Fitted into the Spool Hub. 

Fig. 155. — The Rim Slipped into the End of the Spokes. 

Putting together the Spokes, Hubs, and Rims of the 

wheel, first stick three spokes in a hub and slip a rim into 
the slots in their ends, then stick the remaining spokes 
into the hub, one at a time, and spread the rim enough so 
it can be slipped into their 
slots (Fig. 155). 

When the hubs, rims, 
and spokes have been as- 
sembled, lay them aside 
and get some heavy wrap- 
ping-paper or thin card- 
board out of which 

To Make the Cars. The pattern for the cars is shown 
in Fig. 158, and on it you will find all the dimensions 
necessary for laying it out to the proper size. It will be 
understood that the unfigured portions of the drawing 


Fig. 156. — A 
Spool Hub for 
the Wheel. 

Fig. 157. — How the 
Spokes, Rims, and 
Axles are Fastened 



are the same as those with dimensions marked upon them. 
The dotted lines at the door and window openings in- 
dicate where the cutting is to be done, while all other 

; T] f j 

1 i i 
L__i_! l : 

Fig. 158. — Pattern for the Ferris Wheel Cars. 

dotted lines indicate where the cardboard is to be scored 
and folded. 

Use a ruler in making the drawing of the car to get the 
lines straight, and when you have finished it go over it 
carefully and compare it with the illustration to be sure 



it is correct, after which make a careful tracing of it, turn 
it over and transfer the drawing five times upon cardboard. 
These and your original drawing will give you the required 
number of cars. Cut out the openings with a sharp knife 
and then do the rest of the cutting with a pair of scissors ; 
punch a f-inch hole in each end of each car with a lead- 
pencil (Fig. 158), being careful to get the holes exactly 
opposite. In folding and gluing the cars, slip the flaps 
inside and bend the ^ — 

roofs so they will 
follow the curve of 
the ends (Fig. 159.) 
When the cars 
have been com- 
pleted, cut six sticks 

A Completed Car for the Ferris Wheel. 

5 inches long, whittle them down until they are about yq 
inch in diameter, and sandpaper them until they are per- 
fectly round and smooth. These sticks connect the rims 
of the wheel and form 

The Axles from which the cars are hung (Fig. 159). 
Great care must be used in fastening them between the 
rims, for they are easily split, and the best way to do is 
to start a hole first in the ends of each axle with an awl 
or by driving a brad part way in and then withdrawing 
it ; then drive a brad through each spoke of one rim into 
an axle (Fig. 157) ; slip the other ends of the axles through 
the holes in the ends of the cars (Fig. 159), and nail the 
spokes of the other rim to them. 


To Mount the Wheel upon its standard, whittle an axle 
8J inches long to fit the hubs, then hold the wheel between 
the two uprights, with the hubs on a line with the spool 
bearings and run the axle through the holes (Fig. 137). 

Build Steps at each end of the platform out of heavy 
writing-paper or light cardboard. Fold the paper or card- 
board back and forth, making pleats about J inch wide for 
the steps, and after gluing it in place cut out the balus- 
trades and glue them to the edges of the steps. Make the 
top step low enough so there will be about J-inch clearance 
between it and the bottom of the cars (Fig. 137). 

After you have made a final inspection to see that 
everything has been put together properly, your toy will 
be ready for operation, and I am sure that when you set 
the clockwork machinery in motion, and the little wheel 
begins to revolve slowly with each little car balancing 
upon its axle, you will agree that you have constructed 
a very interesting toy. 

The " Flying Airships " is a riding device consisting of 
a number of cars suspended by steel cables from large 
arms pivoted to the top of a tower. When the machin- 
ery is started, the arms begin to revolve slowly, and the 
motion produced causes the cars to swing out away from 
the center. As the speed of the arms increases, the cars 
swing out farther and farther, until when the highest 
speed has been reached the cables by which the cars are 
suspended have taken an oblique position and raised the 
cars some distance above the ground ; then the speed of 


the engine is gradually diminished, and the cars finally 
regain their former position. This piece of apparatus is 
also known as an aerostat. 

You will find the miniature flying airships (Fig. 138) 
easy to construct after making a merry-go-round or Ferris 
wheel, as many of its details are identical with those of the 
other toys. 

The Standard for the toy is made similar to the one for 
the merry-go-round (Fig. 135), except that the top board 
is omitted and a circular piece of cardboard of the size 
of the disks removed in cutting out the rims of the Ferris 
wheel is substituted in its place. Cut a hole through the 
exact center of the piece large enough so it will fit over 
spool D (Fig. 136). 

Cut a Mast about 14 inches long and of the diameter 
of the hole in the spool and stick it into spool D ; then 
3 inches below the top of the mast fasten a spool with 
four horizontal arms 6 inches long glued into holes bored 
in it. Fasten a cross-piece 4^ inches long to the end of 
each arm with brads, and from these suspend 

Cars made similar to those of the Ferris wheel, with 
cords. Set a small flag in a hole bored in the top of the 
mast and then run cords from the top of the mast out to 
the ends of the arm pieces. 

With this toy the cars cannot be swung out obliquely 
as on the large flying airships except by 

Increasing the Speed of the Clockwork. This can be 
accomplished by removing one or two of the wheels of 


the clockwork, but it is not advisable to take out more 
than one wheel in addition to those removed for the merry- 
go-round (Fig. 139) because the mainspring would require 
rewinding too often to make the toy enjoyable. 

An Electric Motor can be belted to these toys as a sub- 
stitute for the clockwork, if you own one and prefer to try 
it out. 

The clockwork toys just described were invented by the 
author for his book " Handicraft for Handy Boys," and 
were the first designs, he believes, devised for home-made 
mechanical toys of this nature. No doubt you have noticed 
that manufacturers of the so-called " construction sets " 
— steel and wood strips supplied with bolts and screws for 
assembling — have used these very same forms of models to 
show what can be made with their outfits. But your 
Ferris wheel, merry-go-round, and aerostat, built as de- 
scribed in this chapter, with materials picked up at home, 
will be the equal of any that can be built, and you will have 
the satisfaction of knowing that you haven't required an 
expensive " construction set " for making them. 

All sorts of toy vehicles can be operated by clockwork. 
Figure 160 shows 

An Automobile, and Fig. 161 shows how the clockwork 
motor is mounted upon the chassis and belted to the driving 
wheel. The same scheme that was used for the cars of 
the toy railway described in Chapter VI will be followed 
in making 

The Frame of the automobile, as that is about the sim- 

Fig. 160. The Car Completed. 

Fig 161. The Framework. 



plest way, and makes a light, easy-running vehicle. The 
bed will be cut of a different pattern, however, as will be 
seen in Fig. 162. Lay out the piece to the dimensions 
shown upon this drawing, and then cut it out, making a 
mortise in each end for the wheels to fit in. The spool 
wheels should be mounted in the same nanner as those 
of the railway cars, for which see Fig. 80, Chapter VI, and 
the directions upon page 51. One end of spool A should 
be pivoted with a longer finishing nail than those used for 




t-S-l 1 


-H ml* 







I =- 1 .. 


Fig. 162. — Top View of Wooden Frame. 

the other pivots, so that when driven in place about half 
an inch will project beyond the frame. A small silk spool 
should be fastened upon this for a belt-wheel (see B, Fig. 
162). The hole in one of these spools is about three- 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter, so, in order to make it lit 
tightly upon the nail, it is necessary to fill in around the nail 
with sealing-wax. To do this, turn the wooden frame 
upon its edge and place the spool over the nail, being 
careful to get the nail in the exact center of the hole. 
Then hold a stick of sealing-wax over the spool, and with 
a lighted match melt the end and allow it to drip into the 


hole. When the hole has been partially rilled, allow the 
wax to harden a little, and then press it down around the 
nail with the end of a match, being careful not to throw 
the spool out of center by doing so. The hole should then 
be filled to the top. 

We are now ready to prepare the clockwork for mount- 
ing upon the wooden frame. The works shown in Fig. 161 
are from an alarm clock, but if you have a striking clock, 
or one with works a little different from those shown in the 
illustration, it does not make a bit of difference in the 
scheme for attaching the works. The three parts shown 
in the foreground of Fig. 161 must first be removed from 
the works. These will be recognized readily in any clock, 
as they are pivoted close together, and regulate the speed 
of the other wheels. When they have been removed, the 
mainspring will unwind rapidly. The frame of the works 
shown in the illustration is held together with nuts, so 
that in removing the wheels it was necessary to unscrew 
two of them, spring the frame open enough to let the 
wheels drop out, and then replace the nuts again in their 
former positions. If the frame of your clockwork is 
riveted together, the wheels will have to be broken out. 
A small silk spool, such as B (Fig. 162), should be fastened 
upon the small pivot which originally operated the clock's 
hands, for a belt-wheel. Lay the works upon a table with 
the face-side down, and, after centering the hole of the spool 
upon the pivot, fasten it in place with sealing-wax in the 
same manner as you attached spool B (Fig. 161). 


The works should now be attached to the wooden 
frame. Place them with the striker uppermost, near the 
edge of the frame, so that the small belt-wheels are in 
line with one another. Then bore a number of gimlet 
holes in the wooden frame and run copper wire through 
them, passing it around the posts of the clock-frame and 
twisting its ends until the works are firmly fastened in 

A rubber band about an eighth of an inch wide and long 
enough to reach from one belt-wheel to the other should 
be procured for 

The Belt. This should stretch just enough to cling 
upon the spools, as more than that would cause too much 

Before going any further with the construction of the 

Test the Machine, to be sure that it is in perfect running 
order. Wind up the mainspring, pressing a finger against 
one of the wheels to hold it in check until you are ready to 
start the machine. When properly made, the clockwork 
automobile should run a distance of from twenty to twenty- 
five feet upon a wooden floor, while about three-quarters 
of that distance should be covered upon a floor with a fairly 
smooth carpet. 

The Cardboard Sides and other details of the auto- 
mobile should now be made. The patterns for these have 
been so shown in Figs 163 to 170 that they can easily be 
laid out to the proper shape and size by means of the pro- 




cess of enlarging by squares described on page 175, Chapter 
XVII. White cardboard should be used upon which to 
draw these pieces, and the thinner it is 
the easier you will find it to work with. 
First prepare the two sides, cutting 
them out by the pattern of Fig. 163. 
Then glue the bottom edge of each side 
to the edge of the wooden frame, cutting 
holes in the left side for the belt-wheels 
and projecting posts to run through (see 
Fig. 160 and A, B, C, D, and E, Fig. 
172). The top to the front of the car 
should now be cut as shown in Fig. 173, 
the distance between the sides being 
measured to get the piece of proper 
dimensions. Bend the edges as in Fig. 173, and glue them 
to the inner surfaces of the side pieces as shown by the 
dotted lines in Fig. 172. In the same way cut and glue 
a piece of cardboard between the side pieces at G and H 

Fig. 171. 





Fig. 172. — Cardboard Side of Automobile. 



(Fig. 172) for the seat-backs. The bent edges of these 
pieces are shown by dotted lines in the illustration. Draw 

Wheels as shown in Fig. 164, using a compass with which 
to describe the circles, and cut them out with a sharp 
knife. You can cut out between the spokes, if you wish, 
or leave them solid. Glue the wheels to the cardboard, 
placing their centers about as located at / and /, Fig. 
172. Four 

Mud-Guards should be cut like Fig. 165, with flaps made 
along one edge. Then bend these guards around the tops 

of the wheels, and, after 
applying glue to the flaps, 
press them against the card- 
board side, holding your 
fingers upon the flaps until 
the glue has dried (see Fig. 
1 60) . The guards should be 
placed a little above the tops 
of the wheels. Cut four 
Lamps like Fig. 166 and glue end K of two upon the 
front of the automobile at L (Fig. 172) and one of the 
other two upon each side at M. These lamps are shown 
in position in the illustration of the completed automobile 
(Fig. 160). Draw and cut 

The Steering-Wheel similar to Fig. 167, and, after pivot- 
ing it to the end of a strip of cardboard with a pin as shown 
in Fig. 174, bend the lower end and glue it to the under side 

Fig. 173. —The Hood. 


of the cardboard top F at N (see Fig. 172, also Fig. 160). 
Make a 

Horn like Fig. 168 and glue it to the steering-wheel 
as shown in Fig. 174. A strip of cardboard about the size 
of that used for the upright of the steering- 
wheel should be cut for 

The Brake, and glued to the inside surface 
of the right side of the car at (Fig. 172). 

The Chauffeur should now be made. Cut 
his head and body the shape and size of Fig. 
169, drawing the face upon each side with 
goggles over the eyes. Cut the arms in 
two pieces the shape of P and Q (Fig. 170), 
and then pivot P to Q at R and the end of 
Q to the shoulder of the body at S, using 
thread for fastening the pieces together. 


Paint the hat, coat, sleeves, and gloves a F s \ G eer ^g-whJeL e 
leather color, and the face flesh color. The 
body should then be fastened to the hammer of the clock- 
works with sealing-wax, as shown in Fig. 171, while the 
left hand should be glued to the edge of the steering-wheel 
and the right to the end of the brake (see Fig. 160). By 
thus attaching the body to the end of the hammer, and 
winding up the small spring, the chauffeur will shake vio- 
lently when the auto runs across the floor, showing the 
vibrations of the machine in a greatly exaggerated and 
amusing manner. 

It is now only necessary to 


Paint the Machine to complete it. The photograph 
(Fig. 1 60) shows where different colors are needed. The 
lamps, top, ends, and sides of the front portion of the car 
should be painted the color of brass, and the rest of the 
sides, with the exception of a strip along the bottom and 
the edge of the arms, should be painted vermilion. Paint 
the inside of the car and the edges of the seat-arms tan 
color, to represent leather upholstering. With black 
paint, or ink, stripe off the door and trimmings upon the 
sides and top of the machine, as shown in Figs. 160, 172, 
and 173. Blacken the brake and steering-wheel and the 
spokes and rims of the wheels. Along the bottom of each 
side glue a strip of cardboard for the running-boards. 

When you have tired of your touring-car, you can easily 
convert it into 

An Automobile Delivery Wagon, such as illustrated in 
Fig. 175. To make this you will require the same frame 
as that used for the touring-car, with the clockworks and 
belt-wheels attached in the same manner. If you have 
made the touring-car, remove the cardboard sides from its 
wooden frame, separating the cardboard from the wood 
carefully so you can put the machine together again when 
you wish. If you haven't made this automobile, you will 
find the details for the construction of the frame in Figs. 
161 and 162, and the manner of performing the work 
described on pages 104 to 107. 

The Cardboard Sides are much easier to prepare than 
those for the touring-car, as they are straight and require 



but little cutting. The outline for these is shown in Fig. 
175, surrounding the drawing of the completed wagon. 
Lay out one side upon a piece of cardboard, using the 
dimensions given upon the drawing, and then place it upon 
a board and cut it out with your knife. Using this as a 

Fig. 175. — An Automobile Delivery Wagon. 

pattern, place it upon another piece of cardboard and run 
a pencil around its edges, thus marking out the second 
side. In cutting out the latter piece, run your knife a little 
inside of the line in order to allow for the increase in size 
caused by marking it out with the first cardboard side. 
Having prepared the two sides, draw panels upon them in 
some such form as shown in the illustration, separating 


them with three lines. Draw a small window, with its 
top slightly arched, near the front edge of each side, and 
cut an opening for it (see illustration). 

Glue the sides to the edges of the truck in the same 
manner as those of the touring-car were done, piercing 
holes for the posts of the clockwork to fit in, and openings 
for the belt-wheels to project through, in the left side. 
Cut a piece of cardboard for the back of the wagon, fit it 
between the sides, and fasten it in place by gluing a number 
of linen strips to it and the sides upon the inner or unex- 
posed surfaces. Then cut a piece of cardboard for the 
roof, making it about two inches longer than the sides, to 
give it the proper projection over the front of the wagon. 
Fasten this piece in position in the same manner as you 
fastened the back of the wagon. 

Make the floor and footboard for the wagon out of a 
piece of cardboard bent as shown in Fig. 175, and fasten 
it across the top edges of the projecting portions of the sides 
with linen strips. Cut a strip for a seat, and fit it between 
the sides an inch and one-half above the floor. 

The Wheels of an automobile wagon contain fourteen 
spokes, but as you have the pattern for the touring-car 
wheels of twelve spokes, you can just as well use it in 
making the wagon wheels. They should be mounted upon 
the sides of the wagon, a trifle above the bottoms of the 
spool wheels, as shown in the illustration, so they will not 
touch the carpet when the machine is operated. 

All Other Portions of the wagon should be made of the 


same patterns given for the touring-car, viz. the chauffeur 
(Figs. 169 and 170), the steering-wheel (Figs. 167 and 174), 
the brake (Fig. 160), and the lamps (Fig. 166). As the 
legs of the chauffeur will show, it will be necessary to cut a 
pair out of cardboard (the drawing shows the shape clearly 
enough to work by) and fasten them to his body. Fasten 
the chauffeur upon the seat and glue his left hand to the 
steering-wheel, placing the latter in front of him, as shown 
in the drawing. Stick the lower end of the cardboard 
upright of the steering-wheel upon a pin run through the 
wagon floor from the under side. Glue the upper end of 
the brake to the chauffeur's hand and the lower end to the 
side of the wagon. 

Paint the Wagon with water colors, making the sides, 
end, and roof olive green, the steering-wheel, brake, and 
spokes of wheels black, and the lamps yellow or the color 
of brass. In painting the sides show the battery compart- 
ments upon them below what would properly be the bottom 
of the wagon (see illustration). Leave the cardboard white 
below this box, as it represents no portion of the machine, 
but is necessarily brought down so far to conceal the 
wooden frame. It will give the machine a more finished 
appearance if, after painting, you go over it with black 
paint and a fine brush and stripe the panels upon the sides, 
following the lines which you drew upon them with a pencil. 
Letter the word " Delivery " upon the center panel of 
each side, and the firm name in the small panel between the 
lamp and window. 


By attaching a set of clockworks in the same manner as 
described for the automobiles, you can make 

A Clockwork Railway, constructing the cars similar 
to the street car shown in Fig. 84, Chapter VI, and using 
the schemes in the same chapter for the tracks and depots. 

Each car should be provided with a clockwork motor, 
because a single clockwork is not strong enough to pull 
more than one car. Let me know how you succeed in 
building a clockwork railway. 


An entire volume might be filled with plans for electrical 
toys and yet not exhaust the innumerable forms that are 
within the ability of a boy to construct. There is room 
in this chapter for only a few, and I have selected simple 
ideas, those that can be carried out by a boy having no 
knowledge of working with electricity, with materials that 
can be obtained at an expenditure of little or nothing. 
Thus every boy will be able to make these electrical toys. 

The Electro-Magnet Derrick shown in Fig. 176 will 
hoist nails and other small pieces of hardware from the 
floor to a table top, and as the boom, or arm, can be swung 
from side to side, and raised and lowered, loads can be 
moved from place to place in the same way as with large 
derricks. The toy derrick may be used for loading and 
unloading toy wagons, carts, and trains of cars, provided, 
of course, you use iron or steel of some sort for your loads. 
It is easy enough to get nails, brads, tacks, and odd pieces 
of hardware for the purpose. The model from which Fig. 
176 was made has lifted a bunch of two hundred and 
eighty-four brads § inch long. By using smaller brads, 
or tacks, a much larger number could be lifted. 




The first part of the toy to construct is 

The Electro-Magnet. The difference between an electro- 
magnet and the toy variety of horse-shoe magnet with 
which every boy is familiar, is that the electro-magnet 
retains its magnetism only so long as an electric current 

Fig. 176. — An Electro-Magnet Derrick. 

is passing around it, while the steel magnet retains its 
influence permanently, after being magnetized, unless it 
happens to be demagnetized by subjection to heat, or in 
some other way. 

Figures 177 to 179 show the details for making a simple 
home-made electro-magnet. 



An electro-magnet consists of a center core of soft iron, 
wrapped with a coil of insulated wire. When an electric 
current passes over a wire, a magnetic field is formed around 
the wire ; and when several turns of insulated wire are 
wrapped about a soft iron core, the magnetic fields of all 
the turns of the coil, or helix, combine, forming a very 
strong magnetic field which strongly magnetizes the iron 
core. As I have said before, this magnet loses its mag- 

Fig. 177 Fig. 179 

Figs. 177-179. — The Electro-Magnet. 

Fig. 178 

netic influence the instant the current ceases to pass 
through the surrounding coil of wire. 

You will need a machine-bolt or carriage-bolt i\ or 3 
inches long, and \ inch in diameter, for the core of the 
magnet, some insulated electric-bell wire for the coil, and 
a piece of heavy cardboard. Cut three washers of a trifle 
larger diameter than the bolt-head, out of the piece of 
cardboard (Fig. 178), and slip these over the bolt as shown 



in Fig. 179 — one at the bolt-head end, the other two at 
the nut end ; then screw the nut on to the end of the bolt. 
Before starting* to wind the insulated wire upon the 
bolt, pierce two holes through the inner cardboard washer 
of the two at the nut end. Then stick the end of the wire 
through one of these holes, and pull a length of 4 or 5 inches 

of the wire out between the 



Fig. 180. — How the Electro-Magnet is 
Connected up. 

two washers. Starting at 
this end of the bolt, then, 
wind the wire around the 
bolt, keeping the turns 
even and each turn pressed 
close against the preceding 
turn. When the washer 
at the head end of the bolt 
has been reached, wind 
back to the starting point ; 
then wind back to the 
washer at the head a sec- 
ond time, and again back 

to the starting point ; and so on until six or eight layers 
of wire have been wound in place. An even number of 
layers will bring the free end of the wire back to the 
double- washer end. Slip this end through the second 
hole in the inner washer, and bring it out between the 
two washers, as you did the first end. Then screw the 
bolt-nut tight against the washers, to hold the wire 
ends in place (Fig. 177). The outer cardboard washer 



will prevent the nut from charing the insulation on the 
wire ends. 

Now connect the ends of the coil to the binding-posts of 
a battery cell, and you will be surprised to find what a 
strong magnet the head of the bolt core has become. 

One end of the magnet coil should be connected to a 
dry-cell, and the other to a switch ; and another wire 
should connect the switch with the dry-cell (Fig. 180). 

A Home-Made Switch that is easily made is shown in 
Fig. 181. Cut strips A, B, and C (Fig. 182) from a tomato 

Fig. 181 Fig. 182 

Fig. 181. — A Home-Made Switch. 
Fig. 182. — Details of Switch. 

can. Tack the turned up ends of A to a wooden knob (D). 
This forms the switch lever. Strips B and C, folded in 
half, and punched near the ends, form the binding-post 

Figures 181 and 182 show how to mount the lever and 
binding-post plates upon the switch base. Pivot lever A 



Fig. 184 

with a small screw passed through a hole punched near its 
end, and through the hole near the folded end of plate C. 
Fasten plate B with a rug-tack (F) so the lever will come 
in contact with it. Screw-eyes E form the binding-posts. 
Instead of using a separate base, the switch can be 

mounted as shown in Fig. 
176, upon the base of 

The Derrick. Cut the 
base about 8 inches wide 
and 10 inches long {A, 
Fig. 176). The mast (B) 
is a piece of broom-handle 
or curtain-pole 16 inches 
long, and fits loosely in a 
hole bored in the base. 
Figure 183 shows a detail 
of the mast. The pulley 
upon its upper end (C) is 
made of two spool-ends 
nailed together (Fig. 184), 
and it turns upon the axle 
D, which slips through 
holes in the plates E nailed 
to the end of the mast. 
The lever F sticks in a hole in the mast, close to the plat- 
form. This is used to swing the boom from side to side. 
Screw-eye G is placed several inches above F to serve the 
purpose of a pulley to guide the hoisting cables. 

Fig. 183. 
Fig. 184. 
Fig. 185. 

•Detail of Mast. 
Detail of Pulley. 
Detail of Boom. 



Figure 185 shows a detail of the boom. Cut the side 
sticks H 18 inches long, and fasten between them the 
separators /, which should be just long enough to allow 
clearance for the spool pulley J. The pulley is mounted 
on the axle K. Screw the lower ends of the boom to the 
mast, at a point 2\ inches above the base. 

The Windlass for raising the derrick boom, and for 
hoisting the loads, is shown in 
detail in Fig. 186. Bore a hole 
through upright L for the axle 
M to stick through, and cut 
axle M enough smaller than the 
spool drums N so they will turn 
easily. Fasten a crank and handle 
to one end of each spool, and drive 
a brad through each end of the 
axle to prevent the drums from 
sliding off. Cut four notches in 
the inner flange of each spool, as 
shown, and pivot the catches O 

to the post L, in the positions indicated, so they may be 
thrown into the notches to lock the windlass (Fig. 176). 

The Hoisting Cables should be made of strong cord. 
Fasten one end of the cable for raising the boom to a nail 
(P, Fig. 176), and run this cord up and over the mast 
pulley, then down through screw-eye G and over to one 
drum ; tie it securely to the drum so it will not slip around. 
The other cable should be fastened between the nut and 

Fig. 186. 

— Detail of Derrick 


washer of the magnet, as shown in Fig. 180, run up and 
over the boom pulley J, then through screw-eye G, and 
tied to the second drum. 

Figure 176 shows how the dry-cell may be strapped to 
the base board in front of the mast, and how the wires 
that connect the electro-magnet, switch, and cell should 
be twisted around the hoisting cable, part way, and the 
remainder of their length allowed to hang. Be sure to cut 
the wires long enough to reach from a table-top down to 
the floor. Use flexible wire if you can get it. 

By mounting the base upon spool wheels, your derrick 
can be moved along a table-top. Spool-ends may be used 
for the wheels, and can either be screwed to the edge of 
the base, or be fastened upon axles as the wheels of the 
Electric Motor Truck are fastened (Figs. 203 and 208). 

How the Derrick Works. It is probably unnecessary to 
explain that a load is picked up by throwing over the 
switch lever to the contact point and closing the circuit, 
and that it is dropped by throwing off the switch lever 
and opening the circuit — which causes the electro-magnet 
to lose its magnetism. 

A Toy Shocking Machine. The little shocking machine 
shown in Fig. 187 is a harmless toy with which you can 
have an endless amount of fun when entertaining friends. 
The shock it produces is not severe, but strong enough to 
make your friend's arm and wrist muscles twitch, and 
perhaps cause him to dance. Large shocking coils contract 
the muscles to such an extent that it is impossible to let 




go of the metal grips until the current has been shut off, 
but in our small shocking machine the handles can be 
dropped the instant the person holding them wishes to 
do so. 

The shocking machine consists of an induction-coil, an 
interrupter, and a pair of handles, all of which are easy for 
a boy to make, and a wet or dry battery of one or two cells 
to furnish the current. 

The Induction-Coil is the first part to make. This is 
shown in detail in Figs. 188 to 191. The coil has windings 

Cardboard Endi 

Fig. 188 Fig. 191 




Fig. 190 
191. — Details of Induction-Coil. 

of two sizes of wire upon an iron core. For the core buy 
a 3^-inch carriage-bolt 2J inches long, and for the wire 
coils get some No. 20- or 24-gauge electric-bell insulated 
copper wire, and some No. 30-gauge insulated magnet- 
wire. To keep the wire from slipping off the ends of the 
bolt core, cut two cardboard ends about \\ inches in 


diameter. Slip one of these on to the bolt next to the head, 
and the other one next to the nut, as shown in Fig. 188. 

Three layers of the coarse wire should be wound on first, 

The Primary- Coil. Pierce a hole through one card- 
board end, stick the wire through it, and allow about 5 
inches to project upon the outside ; then commence wind- 
ing the wire upon the core, placing each turn close to the 
preceding turn. When the opposite end of the bolt has 
been reached, wind back to the starting point, then work 
back to the other end again. There will be in the neigh- 
borhood of 175 turns in the three layers. Cut off the wire 
so there will be a 5-inch projection, and stick the project- 
ing end through a hole in the cardboard end. This com- 
pletes the primary-coil (Fig. 189). 

Before winding the small wire on top of the primary- 
coil, to form 

The Secondary-Coil, wrap the primary-coil with a layer 
of bicycle tape, or glue several layers of paper around the 
coil. Then wind on the small wire as you did the coarser 
wire, being very careful to get it on evenly and smoothly. 
Wind eleven layers on the coil, and run the end of the 
eleventh layer out through the cardboard end (Fig. 190). 
There should be about 100 turns of this wire to the layer, 
or 1 1 00 turns in all. 

A crank arrangement can be rigged up to make the 
winding easier, but with patience, and by doing the work 
slowly, the wire can be wound almost as well by hand. 


It is difficult to keep track of each preceding turn, while 
winding, because of the fineness of the wire, and on this 
account it is a good scheme to coat each layer with bluing 
after it has been wound on, so that each turn of the follow- 
ing layer will show plainly against the stained layer be- 
neath it. Figure 190 shows the complete induction-coil. 

Cut a base block 5 inches wide and 7 inches long, bevel 
the top edges to give it a trim appearance, and mount the 
induction-coil to one side of the center (Fig. 187), strapping 
it in place by means of two tin straps similar to that shown 
in Fig. 191, cut from a tin can. 

The projecting ends of the primary-coil connect with the 
battery, while the two ends of the secondary-coil connect 
with the handles. Make three binding-post plates out of 
folded pieces of tin, similar to plates B and C, in Fig. 182. 
Tack two of these to the end of the base and connect the 
secondary-coil wires to them (Fig. 187), and tack the third 
near one end of the induction-coil and connect one primary- 
coil wire to it (Fig. 187). 

For the Handles take two pieces of broom-handle 3J 
inches long, and cover each with a piece of tin (Fig. 192). 
The pattern for the tin covering (Fig. 193) shows how tabs 
are prepared on the ends and holes punched through them 
for connecting with the induction-coil. The connecting 
wires should be 5 or 6 feet long. Flexible wire is better than 
bell-wire for these, because it is more easily handled in 
passing the handles around. Tack the tin covering to the 
pieces of broom-handle. 











r ig- 193 


Fig. 192 

Figs. 192 and 193. — Details of Shocking-Coil Handles. 

The purpose of the induction-coil is to raise the voltage 
of the battery. The flow of current must be an interrrupted 
one, in order to shock, and therefore 

An Interrupter must be inserted between the battery 
and one of the wires leading to the primary-coil of the in- 
duction-coil. There are several ways to construct an 
interrupter, but 
the scheme which 
I have invented 
for the model of 
this shocking-ma- 
chine (Fig. 187) 
serves the purpose 
nicely, and is a 
neat appearing 
little piece of ap- 
paratus. This interrupter is easily constructed as you will 
see by the working details shown in Figs. 194 to 198. 




Fig. 194. — Interrupter for Shocking-Coil. 


Cut the base block A ij inches wide and 2J inches long. 
Make the shaft B 2f inches long and of a diameter equal 
to the hole in a thread spool ; and prepare the crank C to 
fit on the end, and drive a brad into it for a handle. Fasten 
the crank to the shaft with glue, or by driving a small 
brad through the two. The shaft supports D should be 
prepared as shown in Fig. 196, i| inches wide across the 
bottom, f inch wide at the top, and if inches high. Bore 
a hole through each, a little below the top, and large 
enough so the shaft will turn easily, and fasten these sup- 
ports with brads to the sides of base A. Drive eight brads 
into a thread spool, spacing them equidistant from one 
another, and mount this spool upon the shaft (E, Fig. 
194), first slipping the shaft through one support, then 
through the spool, and then through the other support. 
Drive the spool brads a trifle into the shaft to hold the 
spool in position. 

The projecting arm F (Fig. 194) is a strip of tin cut from 
a can, and must be long enough so each nail-head will strike 
its end when spool E is revolved. Drive a nail into base 
A, at G, and, after bending strip F as shown in Fig. 198, 
fasten it with brads upon the top of an upright made simi- 
lar to H (Fig. 197), and nail this upright to the end of 
base A. The upper end of strip F must be bent so it will 
bear down upon the head of nail G. 

The wire from the primary-coil which is as yet not con- 
nected should be attached to nail G, and one battery wire 
should be connected to a binding-post plate / fastened to 



the lower end of strip F. Figure 198 shows how the bind- 
ing-post plate is made out of a doubled piece of tin, with a 
hole punched through it for a small binding-screw. 

This completes the interrupter. Mount it beside the 
induction-coil upon the base block, and connect it with the 
battery and the induction-coil, as shown in Fig. 187. Con- 
nect the battery cells in series. Two cells will be enough. 

Fig. 197 

Fig. 195 Fig. 196 

Figs. 195-198. — Details of Interrupter. 

How the Interrupter Works. When you turn the crank 
of the interrupter, each nail in spool E raises the end of 
strip F, in passing it, thus breaking the electrical contact 
between it and the head of nail G. If the strip has been 
bent properly, it will spring back into contact with the 
head of nail G, and each time the contact is made, 
the person holding the handles will receive a shock. The 
strength of the current can be regulated somewhat by the 
speed with which the interrupter crank is turned. The 
shocks are stronger and more distinct when the crank is 
turned slowly. 



Home-made electrical toys of a light construction are 
easily operated by a toy motor, when the motor and battery 
cell are not carried by the toy ; but when both are trans- 
ported, as in the case of a wagon, the construction must be 
very carefully worked out, or the motor will not be power- 
ful enough to drive the wheels. 

The Toy Electric Motor Truck shown in Fig. 199 is of 

Fig. 199. — A Toy Electric Motor Truck. 

light construction, the axle bearings produce very little 
friction, and the battery is light and of a powerful type. 

Get an oblong shaped cigar-box for the bed and sides of 
the truck, several large thread spools for wheels and pulleys, 
two small silk-thread spools, four lead-pencils, or sticks 
whittled perfectly round and \ inch in diameter, for axles, 



belt-shaft, and steering-wheel post, and six screw-eyes T 5 6 
inch in diameter for the bearings. 

First, place the cigar-box in a wash-boiler or wash-tub 
of hot water, and allow it to remain there until the paper 
labels have soaked off or loosened sufficiently so they can 
be scraped off with a knife. 

Then, after the box has thoroughly dried, cut the two 

Fig. 200. — Top view of Electric Motor Truck. 

strips A (Fig. 208), and fasten them to the bottom, one at 
each side. Screw the screw-eye axle bearings into these 
strips. Place them at equal distances from the ends of 
the strips. 

The Wheels are made from the flange ends of the large 
spools. Figure 202 shows the front pencil axle. Slip the 
center portion of one of the large spools on to this for a 



Fig. 201 

Fig. 202 

pulley, then stick the pencil ends through the screw-eyes 
in strips A, and glue the spool-end wheels on to them. 
The rear axle is like the front one, with the spool pulley 
omitted (Fig. 203). 

The Upper Shaft shown in Fig. 201 supports a spool 
pulley like the one on the front axle, and its screw-eye bear- 

ings should be 
'73§L screwed into the 

top edge of the 
sides of the box 
(Fig. 200), directly 
over the front 
axle. Slip a silk- 
spool on to each 
end of this shaft 
to keep its ends 
from slipping out 
of the screw-eyes. 
The Belts. As 
you will see by 
Figs. 200 to 202, 
the upper large pulley is belted to the motor pulley, and 
another belt extends from the upper shaft down to the 
pulley on the front axle. Rubber-bands make the best 
belts. Cut a hole through the bottom of the cigar-box for 
the belt extending from the upper shaft to the front axle 
to pass through. Screw the toy motor to the cigar-box 
with its pulley directly in line with the upper shaft pulley. 

Fig. 203 

Figs. 201-203. — Details of Axle and Belt Shaft. 



Wrap the spool pulleys with bicycle-tape, to keep the 
rubber-band belts from slipping. 

The Battery. A dry battery is too heavy for the motor 
truck to carry ; so we must make a special two-cell battery 
like that shown in Fig. 204. Two glass tumblers to hold 
the solution, a pair of battery zincs, a pair of carbons, and 
a bi-chromate of potash solution, are needed. Old battery 

Fig. 204. — Two Home-Made Battery Cells Connected in Series. 

zinc pencils with several inches of the eaten end cut off 
(Fig. 206) will do for the zincs, and the carbons from worn- 
out dry-battery cells cut to a corresponding length will do 
for the carbons. Fasten together the zincs and carbons 
with rubber-bands, as shown in Fig. 207, after wrapping 
a piece of bicycle-tape around the upper end of the carbon 
and inserting a small wad of it between the lower ends of 
the carbons and zincs, to keep them from touching one 

Figure 205 shows a completed cell, and Fig. 204 how the 
two cells are connected in series, that is, with the carbon 

i 3 6 




Fig. 206 

Fig. 207 

Fig. 205 

Fig. 205. — A Single Cell. 

Figs. 206 and 207. — Details of Zinc and Carbon. 

of one connected to the zinc of the other. Twisting the 
connecting wires into coils, as shown, is a good method of 
taking up the slack. 

The Bi-chromate Battery Fluid is made up of bi-chro- 
mate of potash, sulphuric acid, and water, in the following 
proportions : 

4 ounces of bi-chromate of potash 
4 ounces of sulphuric acid 
1 quart of water 

In making up this solution, first add the acid to the water, 
— never add the water to the acid, — and then, when the 
solution is nearly cool, add the bi-chromate of potash. 
Pour the acid into the water slowly, because the combina- 
tion of the two creates a great deal of heat, and if the heat 


J 37 

Fig. 209 

forms too quickly your glass bottle is likely to split. Label 
the bottle in which you put this solution POISON. 

As the bi-chromate solution attacks the zinc element of 
a cell even when the current is not being drawn upon, the 
zinc should be removed when the cell is not in use. 

Amalgamating a Zinc Pencil. To reduce the eating 
away of a zinc pencil used in a bi-chromate solution, the 
zinc should be amalgamated by rubbing a thin coat of 
mercury over its surface. Dip the zinc into the solution, 
first, then with a rag 
dipped in the solution rub 
the mercury on to it. 

Cut an opening through 
the cigar-box large enough 
for the two tumblers to set 
in. Then cut a strip of tin 
about 1 inch wide and 8 
inches long, and bend it 
into a U-shaped hanger, 
to support the tumbler 
bottoms. Slip the hanger 
ends under strips A, bend 
them against the sides of the box, and fasten with tacks 
(Figs. 208 and 209). 

Figure 200 shows how the battery cells are connected. 
A small switch can be fastened to the side of the truck 
to shut off and turn on the current, but, instead, you can 
simply withdraw one pair of elements from its tumbler to 

Fig. 208. 
Fig. 209. 

Fig. 208 
Plan of Motor Truck Bottom. 
Section through Bottom. 



shut off the current. When through playing with the 
truck, however, it is important to remove both pairs of 
elements and wash them off, because the bi-chromate 
solution attacks the zinc elements even when the current 
is not in use. As the bi-chromate solution stains very 
badly, it is advisable to operate the motor truck only 
where there is no danger of ruining anything in case some 
of the solution spills, as in the basement or workshop. 
If you wish to use a dry-cell instead of the pair of bi- 
chromate cells, you can place the cell upon the floor and 
make the wires connecting it to the motor long enough so 
the truck can run back and forth across a room. 

The Seat and Canopy-Top details are shown in Fig. 210. 
Make these in about the proportion to the cigar-box shown 
in Fig. 199. Fasten the seat to the edge of the seat-back 
B with glue and brads, and then fasten the side pieces A 
to the ends of the seat. The dashboard E is nailed to the 

Fig. 210. — Details of Seat and Canopy- Top. 


bottom piece D, and D is nailed to the lower ends of side 
pieces A. Figure 211 shows the pattern for the canopy- 
top. Make it of light-weight cardboard, or heavy writing- 
paper. Slash the ends as 

shown ; then turn down -j p~ 8 " ~*\ 

the corners, and lap and 
glue them to form the 
turned-down canopy 
ends. Fasten the ends 

tO the Canopy Uprights Fig. 211. -Pattern of Canopy-Top. 

with tacks. 

The Seat-Arms are pieces of bent wire, with their ends 
stuck into holes in the canopy uprights and front edge of 
the seat. 

The Steering-Wheel is a section of a spool | inch thick, 
and is glued upon the end of a pencil or a stick. Run the 
lower end of the pencil through a hole in the bottom of D 
(Fig. 210). For 

The Levers, fasten two small sticks to the end of the 
bottom piece D with small staples. 



This interesting toy, with its funny animal targets, and 
a harmless pistol with which to shoot at them, will provide 

Fig. 212. — The Completed Toy Shooting Gallery. 

an endless amount of fun for a winter's evening or stormy 



Figure 212 shows the completed toy, and Fig. 213 the 
box that forms 

The Framework. The targets can be arranged to suit 
the form of box that you find, and the number may be 
increased or decreased to suit the space. 

Fig. 213. — The Box Framework. 

The right position for the box is upon its side so its 
open top forms the front of the target box (Fig. 213). 
The horizontal piece A (Fig. 213) is fastened between the 
ends of the box, to support targets. It is held in place 
by nails driven through the box ends into its ends. If 
your box is much larger than the one shown in the illus- 



tration, you can provide two crosspiece supports for tar- 
gets, instead of one. 

The Circular Target should be drawn upon a piece of 
cardboard with a compass, or, by marking around a cup 

or small saucer to 
make the outer cir- 
cle, marking around 
a can cover for the 
second circle, and a 
coin for the center 
circle. Blacken the 
Cloth -hinge outside and center 
rings with ink, or 
by rubbing with a 
soft pencil. 

Figure 214 shows 
how the target 
should be hinged in 
place to the hori- 
zontal strip A. 
Tack or glue the 
lower edge of the 
piece of cardboard to 
a block of wood B. 

Fig. 215 

Cloth Hi ng 

Figs. 214-215. — Details of Targets. 

Then cut a hinge-strip out of a piece of dress lining, and 
either tack or glue one-half of it to block B and the 
other half to the target support A. 
The Animal Targets are made with pictures cut from 


: 43 

magazines and newspapers. The pictures should be 
colored with crayons or water-colors, to make them as 
nearly like their right colors as possible. 

After cutting out the pictures, paste them upon card- 
board, mount the pieces of cardboard upon blocks of 
wood, as shown at B and C (Figs. 214 and 215), and hinge 
the blocks to the target supports with cloth strips. B 
shows the method of hinging the targets to strip A, and 
to the lower side 
of the box, and C 
shows the method 
of hinging the 
targets to the 
ends of the box. 
The former tar- 
gets fall back- 
wards when 
struck ; the latter targets swing sideways when struck. 

Figure 216 shows 

The Card-Shooting Pistol, and Figs. 217, 218, and 219 
show the details for making it. Cut block A about 8 
inches long, and block B about 3 inches long. Nail A to 
B as shown. Then take two rubber-bands, loop them 
together end to end, as shown in Fig. 218, and fasten one 
end of the looped bands to the end of block A by means 
of a nail driven into the block and bent over as shown in 
Fig. 217. Cut a piece of cardboard about 1 inch square, 
notch the center of two opposite edges (Fig. 219), and fit 

Fig. 216.— The Card-Shooting Pistol. 



the loop of the free end of the rubber-bands over the piece 
of cardboard and into the notches, as shown in Figs. 217 
and 218. This completes the pistol. 

The toy pistol shoots small squares of cardboard, placed 
in it as shown in Figs. 216 and 218, with one corner slipped 

beneath the rubber- 
band loop. 

Number the Tar- 
gets as shown in Fig. 
212, marking the cir- 
cular target " 25," four 
of the animal targets 
" 10," and the re- 
maining four " 5." 
Each number repre- 
sents the score of 
that particular target. 
When Shooting, stand 3 or 4 feet away from the target 
box. Aim at the circular target, because that one counts 
the most. If you miss it, there is the chance, of course, 
of hitting one of the other targets below or to one side of 
it and making a smaller score. 

Figs. 217-219. 

Fig. 218 
Detail of Card-Shooting Pistol. 


There is nothing more interesting to build than a doll- 
house, and the construction is within the ability of the 
average girl. If brother is willing to lend a hand with 
the carpenter work so much the better. Sister can attend 
to the finishing and furnishing, which are important parts 
of the work that she can do more handily than a boy can. 
But there is no reason why either a girl or boy cannot 
undertake a doll-house like that shown in Figs. 220 and 
221, and carry the work to a successful completion, by 
carefully following the instructions and diagrams in this 

The Building Material. The doll-house in the photo- 
graphs was built of packing cases. You can buy these at 
a dry-goods store at 15 or 20 cents apiece. 

The Floor Plans are shown in Figs. 222, 223, and 224. 
Your boxes may make it necessary to alter the dimensions 
given, but that will be simple to do. Patterns for 

The Partitions are shown in Figs. 225 and 226. In 
cutting the second-floor partitions (Fig. 226), miter one edge 
of E and F to allow for the bedroom door opening, shown 
upon the plan, and miter the edges of G to fit between 



them above the door. The mitering is shown in the draw- 
ings (Fig. 226). 

Besides cutting a stair opening in the second floor, 
make an opening three by five inches in the second and 
third floors for 

The Elevator-Shaft. Care must be taken to have these 
openings exactly over one another. Make the opening 
in the second floor six by eight inches in the place indi- 
cated upon the plan. This will allow for the elevator shaft 
and stairway. No stairway has been built to the third 
story, as the elevator serves the purpose, and one would 
take up too much of the ball-room space. 

The Side Walls should measure nineteen inches wide 
by twenty-four inches high, and the other two walls thirty 
inches wide by twenty-four inches high. That portion of 

The Rear Wall enclosing the kitchen and bath-room is 
hinged to open (see Fig. 222), and 

The Front Wall is made in two sections, each hinged 
to a strip of wood an inch and one-half wide nailed to the 
two edges of the house, as shown in Fig. 220. 

The Windows are four by five inches, so four-by-five 
camera plates can be used for the glass. 

The Roof had best be made in two sections, each meas- 
uring twenty-eight inches long by twenty-four inches wide. 
Fasten the boards together with battens on the under side 
and, after mitering the upper edge of each, nail them to 
the house so that the ridge is fifteen inches above the third 
floor. Then nail a board nineteen inches long by ten 

Fig. 220. The Home-Ma dk I)oll-H< 

1 Fig. 221. Interior View of Doll-House. 





Haul Room 

y T^Srfi 



_,r A 










! 13" * 

Fig 222 First-floor Pla/n 

3 0' 

Bed Room 

Bath : ro 

Room i 


io" — ^fl—*- b" 


'}' Bed Room 2 

;* — iz" — 4- 

t ! 

9- f. 4--^| 

4" 4- 4" 4- 5" -4- 4-" 4 5"—±- 4 "-4- A" -J 

Fig 223 Second Floor Plam 

Fig 225 1 
First Floor Paetitioms 



Lime of Roof 


- is" 4 







I— 4'^ 

\ 13" H 








Fig 226 




Fig 224 THIRD Fl_OOR PlAM' 

Figs. 222-226. — Plans of Doll-House and Patterns for Partitions. 



inches wide in the peak of the roof (D in Fig. 228), and a 
narrow strip three inches from each side wall (K and L 
in Fig. 224). These cut off the triangular shape of the 

ball-room and give it a better ap- 

The Chimney is a solid block 
of wood with narrow strips nailed 
to all sides near the top (Fig. 227). 
Make it eight or ten inches long, 
and cut off the bottom to fit the 
slant of the roof. Paint the block 
red, and mark off the mortar joints 
in white. 

An Elevator is something which 
is found in but few doll-houses. 
It was built in this house, think- 
ing it might please the young mis- 
tress, and it proved such a success 
that the scheme has been worked 
out carefully in Figs. 228, 229, 
230, 231, and 232, that you may 
include it in the house you build. 
The cutting of the elevator-shaft 
has already been described. For material, procure two 
small pulleys such as is shown in Fig. 230, four feet of 
brass chain, six feet of No. 12 wire, half a dozen double- 
pointed tacks or very small screw-eyes, a short piece of 
lead pipe, and a cigar-box. Make 

Fig. 227. — The Chimney. 

Fig. 229 

Fig. 230 

Fig. 231 

ouble Pointed 

Fig. 232 

Fig. 228. — Front View of Elevator-Shaft 
and Stairs. 

Figs. 229-232. — Details of the Elevator. 


The Car out of the cigar-box, cutting it down to two 
and one-quarter inches wide, three and three-quarters 
inches deep, and seven inches high (see Fig. 231). Place 
two of the double-pointed tacks or screw-eyes in each side 
of the car for the guide-wires to run through and another 
in the center of the top from which to attach the brass 

The Guide- Wires are made of very heavy wire that will 
not bend easily. Cut two of a length to reach from the 
first floor to the ball-room ceiling, and after running them 
through the tacks in the sides of the car, stick their ends 
into small holes bored at E, F, G, and H (Fig. 228). The 
upper holes should be bored through the ball-room ceil- 
ing, while the lower ones need be bored but part way 
through the first floor. Care must be taken to have 
these holes in the correct position, so the elevator will 
run up and down upon the wires without striking the sides 
of the shaft. The easiest way of fastening the wires in 
place is to run the upper ends through the holes, until the 
lower ends can be set into their sockets, and then drive 
two double-pointed tacks over the top of each wire, as 
shown at E and F in Fig. 228. 

Now run the elevator up to the top of the shaft, and 
mark upon the ceiling where the screw-eye in the top of 
the car strikes. At this point bore a hole through the 
ceiling and two inches back of it bore another hole, through 
which to run the weight-chain. When this has been done, 
cut a short block of wood to fit the peak of the roof and 



Screw the Pulleys into it two inches apart (Fig. 229). 
Fit the block in the peak of the roof, centering the front 
pulley over the top of the car as nearly as possible, and 
drive a couple of nails through the roof boards into it to 
hold it in place temporarily. Then 

Attach the Chain to the tack in the top of the car, slip 
a piece of lead pipe about an inch long over the chain, 
allowing it to set on the top of the car to make the latter 
heavier (Fig. 231), and run the chain up through the first 
hole in the ceiling, over the pulleys, and down through 
the second hole. To the end of the chain attach a piece 
of lead pipe for 

The Counter-balance (C, Fig. 232). This should be 
just heavy enough to make a perfect balance between 
it and the car, which can be obtained by whittling off 
the end of the pipe until the weight of the two is the same. 
Make the chain of sufficient length so the weight will rest 
upon the first floor when the car is at the third floor. 
You can now tell whether or not the pulleys are in the 
right positions. When they have been adjusted properly, 
nail the block firmly in place. 

The Gable-Ends. The front gable-end consists of four 
pieces (A, B, C, and D, in Fig. 233), the dimensions for 
the cutting of which are given in the illustration. After 
preparing these, nail A, B, and C in their proper positions 
in the gable of the roof, and trim the edges of Z>, if they 
need it, to fit between. To prevent the movable section 
from pushing in too far, it will be necessary to nail a narrow 



strip of wood to the roof and third floor, just inside of it. 
The rear gable is made in one piece, and is fastened in 
place permanently. 

The movable gable and all hinged portions should have 

Fig. 233. — The Front Gable-End. 

Spring-Catches with which to shut up and lock the 
house (see the illustrations). 

The Stairway is shown in Fig. 228, and the details for its 
construction will be found in Figs. 234, 235, 236, 237. This 
stairway is made in two parts, with a platform between. 
Cut a block of wood the shape and size shown in Fig. 234 
for the platform, with notches at A and B for the tops of 
the lower stringers to fit in. Then 

Prepare Two Stringers of thirteen steps similar to Fig. 235, 
and two stringers of five steps similar to Fig. 236, laying off 
the steps by means of a cardboard pattern, or pitch-board, of 
the size shown in Fig. 237. After cutting out these pieces, 
fasten the tops of the lower stringers in the notches A and B 
in the platform, and nail the platform in its proper position in 














Fig 234. 
Stair -Platform 

3" SgUAKE- 

lot A' 

/or-Sfr/n^ers-^B I C 


Fig 237. 
PrrcH -Board 

Fig 236. 

Figs. 234-237. — Details of Stairs. 

the corner of the hall. 
When this has been 
done, nail the bot- 
toms of the upper 
stringers (E in Fig. 
236) to the sides of 
the platform at C and 
D (Fig. 234), and set 
the tops in notches 
cut in the edge of 
the second floor. 

The Treads and 
Risers of the steps 
— the horizontal and 
vertical boards — 
should be cut out of 
cigar-box wood. 


The Newel-Posts 
out of short square 
blocks, and 

The Hand-Rails 
out of strips of 
cigar-box wood. 
Make a groove in 
the under side of the 
hand-rails to re- 
ceive the ends of 


The Balusters, or spindles. Toothpicks are of just the 
right size for balusters. 

The delicate portions of the stairways should be glued 
in place. Make slits in the stair treads to stick the bottoms 
of the balusters in. 

The Front Steps are clearly shown in Fig. 220. Make 
the solid balustrades out of pieces of box board, and the 
step treads and risers out of cigar-box wood. Prepare the 
rear steps in the same way. 

Cut the Window Openings in the places indicated upon 
the plans (Figs. 222 to 224) and the photographs. First 
bore holes in the four corners of each window space ; then 
saw from hole to hole with a compass-saw. 

Old camera plates are excellent material for 

The Window Glass. Fasten the glass in the openings 
with small brads in the same way that glass is fastened in 
picture-frames, and putty it in the same way that window 
glass is puttied, to hold it firm. 

The Front and Rear Doors can be painted upon the 
front of the house. Openings are not necessary. 

The Outside Trimmings. Strips of cigar-box wood 
should be cut up for the outside door and window casings, 
and be tacked around the openings as shown in Fig. 220. 
Nail a molding or a plain strip of wood to the front edge 
of the third floor, as shown in Fig. 220. 

Castors will make it easier to move the doll-house about. 
Cut four blocks of wood, fasten a castor to each, and nail 
one block inside each corner of the foundation frame. 


The Interior Woodwork. Cigar-boxes make excellent 
hardwood floors. Fit the pieces close together and fasten 
with small brads. 

Make the door and window casings, picture-moldings, 
and base-boards out of strips of cigar-box wood. 

After completing the carpenter work of the house, 

Set the Nail-Heads, — ■ that is, drive them below the 
surface of the wood, — putty these holes and all cracks 
and other defective places, and sandpaper rough surfaces. 

Paint the House a cream color, with white trimmings 
and a green roof. Stripe the foundation walls to indicate 
courses of stone work. Paint the front door a mahogany 
color, with panels indicated upon it, and make the rear 
door white. The painting of the chimney has already 
been described. 

The inside walls should be finished as suggested in 
Chapter XIV. The woodwork may be oiled, or painted 
with white enamel or any other color desired. 

A Colonial Doll-House with a number of features not 
included in this house is described and illustrated in 
Chapter V of " The Boy Craftsman." 


With the carpenter work of a doll-house completed, 
the finishing of the inside, — ■ wall papering and painting, 
— and selecting of furnishings for the various rooms, 
remain to be done. This requires as much care as the 
building of the house, and while any boy can do the work, 
the help of a sister will perhaps simplify matters and give 
to the rooms a daintier appearance. 

The Walls and Ceiling of the kitchen and bath-room 
should be painted with white lead or white enamel. For 
the other rooms select paper having a small design, such 
as is to be found on most ceiling papers. If you have 
ever watched the paper-hanger at work, you have noticed 
he puts on the ceiling first, allowing the paper to run 
down the walls a little way all around instead of trim- 
ming it off. Then he hangs the wall paper, and if there 
is no border to cover the joints of the ceiling and wall 
papers he carries the wall paper up to the ceiling. Use 
flour paste to stick on the paper, and a cloth or photo- 
graph-print roller to smooth out the wrinkles. The din- 
ing-room should have a wainscot of dark paper below the 
chair-rail, and a paper with little or no figure upon it above. 



All Hardwood Floors, the stairs, door and window 
casings, baseboards, and picture moldings should be 
varnished thoroughly or given several coats of boiled 

All floors, with the exception of the kitchen, bath-room, 
and hardwood floors, should be fitted with 

Carpets. If you do not happen to have suitable scraps 
on hand, they can be procured at almost any furnishing 
store where they make up carpets. Select pieces with as 
small patterns as possible. The floors of the bath-room 
and kitchen should be covered with oilcloth. 

Rugs for the hardwood floors may be made out of scraps 
of carpet. 

Window-Shades may be made for each window out of 
linen, and tacked to the top casing so that the bottom of 
the curtain reaches just above the center of the opening. 
Each window should also have 

Lace Curtains made out of scraps of lace. They should 
either be tacked above the windows or hung upon poles 
made out of No. 12 wire, cut in lengths to fit the windows. 
Screw small brass hooks into the top window-casings for 
the poles to hang upon. 

Handsome Portieres for the doorways can be made with 
beads and with the small hollow straws sold for use in 
kindergartens. For the 

Bead Portieres, cut threads as long as the height of the 
door and string the beads upon them, alternating the 
colors in such a way as to produce patterns. Then tie 


the strings together to a piece of wire the width of the 
doorway, and fasten the wire in the opening. The 

Straw Portieres are made similarly. 

From magazine illustrations you can select 

Suitable Pictures for each room, but if you are handy 
with brush and pencil you may prefer to make the pictures 
yourself. These may be mounted upon cardboard and 
have their edges bound with passe-partout paper to give 
the effect of frames, or frames may be cut out of card- 
board and pasted to them. Hang the pictures to the 
picture molding with thread. 

A Cosey-Corner may be fitted up in the ball-room by 
■fastening a strip of a cigar-box in one corner an inch and 
one-half above the floor for the seat, and hanging draperies 
on each side of it. Pillows may be made for it out of 
scraps of silk stuffed with cotton. 

A doll-house properly proportioned in every detail, in- 
cluding the selection of its furniture, is pleasing to look at, 
and is to be desired much more than some of the speci- 
mens to be found in the stores. These very often have 
parlor chairs larger than the mantel, beds that either fill 
two-thirds of the bedroom space or are so small they are 
hidden from view by the chairs, and other furniture ac- 
cordingly, all having been selected without any thought as 
to size or fitness. 

Care must be taken, in buying the furniture, to have 
the pieces suitable to the rooms. It will no doubt require 
more time than to purchase the first sets you come across, 


but when you have completed the selections, the result 
will be a much better appearing doll-house. 

By carefully searching the toy-shops you are almost 
certain of rinding what you want for the various rooms, 
as about everything imaginable in furniture has been 
manufactured. Porcelain bath-tubs, wash-basins with 
real faucets and running water, gilt furniture, chande- 
liers, and such articles are tempting to buy. But it is 
rather expensive to fit up a house in this way, for, though 
each piece may not amount to very much, they count up 
very quickly. 

The suggestions for the making of cigar-box furniture 
in Chapter XVII, and spool and cardboard furniture in 
Chapter XIX, will give you plenty of material for furni- 
ture and save you the expense of buying this part of the 
furnishings for your house. 



The stable illustrated in Figs. 238 and 239 is designed 
in keeping with the doll-house in Chapter XIII. It is 
shown in the background of the photograph of this doll- 

Fig. 238. — Exterior of Stable. 

house (Fig. 220). If you prefer a garage instead of this 
stable, you may omit the stalls, and make one or two 
large windows in the rear wall in place of the small high 
windows shown. The building's construction is very 




simple. The dimensions are : width, twenty- four inches ; 
depth, twelve inches ; and height, twenty-two inches. The 
barn contains five stalls on the ground floor and a hay-loft 

To build the stable according to the drawings, a box 
ten by twelve by twenty-four inches should be procured for 

Fig. 239. — Interior of Stable. 

The First Story. If you have a box of different pro- 
portions it will be a simple matter to make such altera- 
tions in the details as it will require. 

The Roof is made in two sections, each fifteen by eigh- 
teen inches, and is fastened to the top of the box so that 
the peak is twenty-two inches above the bottom. 

The Gable-End is made in four pieces, as shown in Fig. 



240, A, B, and C, to be nailed in place, and D to be mov- 
able as in the case of the doll-house. Make a three-by- 
five-inch window in the center of D, and fasten the glass 

—3- — a 

Fig. 240. — Front Gable-End. 

in place with strips cut as described in Chapter XIII. 
Strips should be nailed to the roof just inside of the mov- 
able section to prevent the latter from setting in too far, 
and a spring catch fastened to C and D as shown, to hold 

the movable section 
in place. 

Figure 241 gives 
the patterns and 
measurements for 

The Stall Parti- 
tions, four of which 
should be cut out 
and fastened to the 

Fig. 241. — Stall Partitions. 

floor of the stable four inches apart, or so they will divide 
the inside width into five equal stalls. 

The Feed-Troughs are made out of two strips of cigar- 



boxes fitted between the stalls, as shown in Figs. 239 and 
241, and are fastened in place by means of brads and glue. 
Above the stalls cut 

Small Windows an inch 
and one-half square in the 
rear wall. These are the 
ventilating windows for the 
stalls, and may be left open. 

Figure 242 shows the 
construction of 

A Ladder to the hay-loft. 
This is made out of two 
sticks twelve inches long, 
with strips of cigar-boxes 
two inches long glued to 
them half an inch apart, 
as shown in the drawing. 
Cut away a section of the 
hay-loft floor two inches 
square and stick the end 
of the ladder up through 
the opening, fastening the 
uprights to the edge of 
the floor (see Fig. 242). 

A stick about three 
inches long, with a very small pulley attached near the 
end, should be fastened in the peak of the roof for a 

Feed-Hoist (see Fig. 238). 

Fig. 242. — Ladder to Hay-Loft. 


The first story has 

A Drop-Front, as shown in Figs. 238 and 239. This is 
made from the box-cover. Fasten the boards together 
with battens placed upon the inside, and hinge it to the 
bottom of the stable. Nail two cleats to the under side 
of the floor (see Fig. 238) to lift it off the ground just 
enough to allow the front to drop without springing its 

When the front is down it forms an incline upon which 
to run the horses into the stable. For this reason it is 
not advisable to cut an opening in it, but merely 

Represent a Stable Door on the outside (see Fig. 238). 
This is done with paint and a fine brush. First paint 
a green panel in the center of the front, and then mark 
off a couple of panels within this space with black paint, 
and stripe them diagonally to represent beaded-boards. 

With strips of wood half an inch wide make 

A Simple Trim around the door, the sides of the stable, 
and around the gable, as shown in the illustration. 

When the carpenter work has been finished, 

Paint the Inside of the stable white, and the outside 
the same colors as used for the doll-house (see description 
in Chapter XIII). 

If you Prefer a Garage, use your ingenuity to fit up the 
interior of the building as you think it ought to be. 


The doll apartment building in this chapter is a new 
idea in doll-houses. By the illustrations you will see that 
the apartment building is three stories high, and consists 
of three units — each one story high — and a roof. Dur- 
ing playtime the units are arranged side by side upon the 
floor so as to form a six-room apartment (Fig. 244) ; and 
afterward they are piled up one upon another as shown 
in Fig. 243, and the roof placed on top, in a compact form 
that takes up but little floor space. 

Building Material. The apartment building is built out 
of grocery boxes. The boxes used for the units must be 
of equal size, and the thing to do is to select those in 
which a standard brand of goods come packed. If one 
grocery store doesn't have what you want, go to another. 
If the sides and ends of the boxes are in one piece, it will 
greatly simplify the matter of cutting the door and window 

The Room Dimensions. The boxes used in the model 
illustrated were 28 inches long, 13 inches wide, and 8 
inches deep. These provided space for a vestibule 3 
inches by 8 inches, a reception-hall 8| inches by 8 inches, 


1 66 


a living-room 12 inches by 18J inches, a dining-room 12 
inches by 15 inches, a kitchen 12 inches by 8 inches, a 
pantry 7 inches by 3 inches, two bedrooms — one 12 inches 
square and the other 12 inches by 8 inches, and a bath- 
room 7! inches by 6 inches (Fig. 245). You may have to 
vary the sizes of your rooms a trifle, if you get boxes of 











Fig. 245. — Plan of the Six-Room Doll Apartment. 

different proportions, but it is probable that you can keep 
to the same plan arrangement. 

The First Story Unit is shown in Fig. 246, and diagrams 
of its two partitions A and B, are placed to the right of 
it ; Fig. 247 shows 

The Second Story Unit, with diagrams of its three par- 
titions C, D, and £, placed to the left and right of it, and 
Fig. 248 shows 

The Third Story Unit, with diagrams of its two parti- 
tions F and G placed to the left of it. 

p~l N 



Fig. 244. — How the Thuke 
Stories are Arranged Side 
by Side to form a Six- 
Room Apartment. 

~~- ■ 

IE3 E 


[El E 

E 3' 

*D E 

El, 1 

Fig. 243. -The Most Stylish 
Apartments in Doll Town. 


Mark the Door and Window Openings carefully upon 
the sides of the box, making them as nearly as possible in 



Fig. 246. — The First Story Unit and Diagram of Partitions. 
Fig. 247. — The Second Story Unit and Diagram of Partitions. 
Fig. 248. —The Third Story Unit and Diagram of Partitions. 

the same proportion to the wall space as is shown in the 
illustrations. Then, in cutting the openings, bore a num- 
ber of small holes a trifle inside of the lines, to make an 



opening large enough to insert a small keyhole-saw or 
bracket-saw, and the cutting will be easy to do. 

The Bay Windows on the second and third stories are 
built of cigar-box wood. Instead of cutting away the 
entire width of the box at the points of attaching these 
bays, it is a better plan to leave a narrow strip over the 
opening, as shown in Fig. 249. This will hold the walls 

together, and will form a 
" beam " across the ceil- 
ing. The side edges of the 
pieces that form the front 
of the bay must be slanted 
off so as to fit at the proper 
angles, and the window 
openings must be cut care- 
the Openi j for full y> because the margin 

the Bay Windows, leave a Narrow Strip of wood around them is 
over the Opening, as above, for a -, .„ ,., M 

"Beam " narrow and will split easily. 

Fasten together the mem- 
bers of the bays, also the inside partitions, with glue 
and brads. 

The Joints between the Units, when piled one upon 
another, are concealed by a band of wood \ inch wide 
nailed around the front and two ends of the bottom of 
the second and third story units (Figs. 247 and 248). 
These bands should project about \ inch below the bottoms 
of these boxes, so as to set down over the boxes beneath. 
They must not extend around the back of the boxes, and 


cannot be fastened to the first story box, because they 
would interfere with placing the boxes close together as 
in Fig. 244. 

The first story unit must be raised to the same floor 
level as the other stories, however, and a thin board of 
the same thickness as the projection of the strips on the 

Fig. 251 

Figs. 250 and 251. — How the Removable Roof is Constructed. 
Fig. 252. — How the Chimney and Chimney Cap are Made. 

second and third story units must be nailed to its bottom 
to bring it to the same level (Fig. 246). 

The Roof Construction is shown in Fig. 250. Boards 
H (Figs. 250 and 251) should be cut of the right size to 
form a projection of if inches over the front and ends of 
the building, and the piece / should be cut to the proper 
shape and size to form an equal projection over the bay 
windows. Strips / and K are 1 inch wide, and should 
be fastened to boards H so they will come exactly over the 


front and end walls when the roof is set in place. Block 
L should be cut of such a shape and size that when nailed 
to strip K its front edges will come directly over the walls 
of the bay windows. A narrow strip nailed to the under 
side of the roof boards, close against the walls, will con- 
ceal the joint between the roof and top story and make a 
good finish molding. 

The Chimney is made of two blocks (M and N, Fig. 
252). Notch the lower block to fit over strip /, and cut 
the cap block large enough to project J inch all around. 

The Windows. Old photograph plates can be cut down 
to the proper sizes for the window openings, but it will not 
cost much to have the paint-shop man cut them out of 
new material, if you haven't any. The glass should be 
just a trifle smaller than the openings. Fasten it in place 
with narrow strips of cigar-box wood. Window sashes 
can be indicated by striping the glass with black paint. 

Make the Front Door out of a piece of cigar-box wood, 
and set a piece of glass in an opening cut about the size 
shown in Fig. 243. This door may be hinged to open, 
but it is better to fasten it in the opening, because small 
pieces are easily broken off their hinges. Fasten a small 
block below the front door for a step (Fig. 243). 

The Inside Doorways, in the ends of the first story 
unit and in the back of the second and third story units, 
may be fitted with pieces of board that can be set in when 
the units are piled up in the form of the building, but it 
is not necessary to make this provision. 


The Interior Trim. The door and window casings, 
picture moldings, baseboards, and other trimming should 
be made out of strips of cigar-box wood. Tack the strips 
in place with short brads. 

A Fireplace must be provided for the living-room, and 
one easily constructed out of four pieces of wood is shown 
in Figs. 253 and 254. Cut blocks O and P of the same 

Fig. 253. — The Living-Room Mantel. 

Fig. 254. — Details of Mantel. 

thickness, and make the shelf piece Q of the proper size 
to project an equal distance over the front and ends. 
Fasten the pieces together, then glue red paper to the wood, 
and when this has dried mark off brick courses with a 
pencil. The joints may be accentuated by striping with 
white or black paint. 

Lighting Fixtures, simple to make, are shown in two 
splendid forms in Figures 255 and 257. Small brass 
screw-hooks such as are shown in Figure 256 can be pur- 



m f 

O (l 



Fig. 255 

chased at any hardware store, and a couple of dozen of 
these, a lead pencil, and a number of large beads, will 
furnish you with enough material for making fixtures for 
every room in the apartment. 

You will see by Fig. 256 that the lighting fixture shown 
in Fig. 255 consists of a screw-hook with its hooked end stuck 

through one of the 
little brass plates re- 
moved from another 
screw-hook, and then 
pushed into the hole 
in the end of a short 
piece of lead-pencil. 
Cut the pencil end 
about \ inch long, 
push out the piece 
of lead, and if neces- 
sary enlarge the hole 
to accommodate the 
If the 
piece of pencil comes 
apart where glued, re-glue it. Glue the little brass cap to 
the top. Paint the pencil end white, to represent glass, 
and indicate metal division strips, or leading, with black 
paint or ink. 

The lighting fixture shown in Fig. 257 is made in the 
same way as the other one, except that a bead instead of 
the pencil end is used for a globe (Fig. 258). 



Fig. 25; 

Fig. 258 

Figs. 255-258. — Two Lighting Fixtures and how ^ ^ ^ 

to Make Them. 


The fixture in Fig. 255 is better suited to the living- 
room and dining-room, and for fastening each side of the 
front door; the fixture in Fig. 257 is better for the other 

Decorating. Suggestions for decorating a doll-house are 
given in Chapter XIV, but here are some additional ideas 
to suit the conditions of the apartment. It is the modern 
practice to tint walls of apartments, and the best plan is 
to cover the walls of each room with plain paper, using a 
paper of a different color for each room. 

The dining-room should have a plate-rail on which to 
stand plates (pictures of plates cut from advertisements 
and pasted upon cardboard), and the walls below the 
plate-rail should be paneled with strips of cigar-box wood 
for division strips (Fig. 244). 

The Outside Walls of the apartment building are sup- 
posedly brick ; therefore paint them a good red, brown, or 
yellow brick color, and paint the roof cornice, and the 
horizontal bands between stories, white, as a contrast. 


The metal furniture which you can buy is very pretty 
when it is new, but this new appearance does not last 
long after it has come into a youngster's possession, for 
the pieces are very slender and delicate, and thus easily 

Wooden furniture is the most durable kind, and plain 
and simple pieces will generally outlast the fancy ones. 
The designs illustrated in this chapter make very substan- 
tial pieces, as there are no spindle legs or fancy arms to 
break off. They follow the lines of the mission furniture, 
that simple style used in the early American mission 
schools, and which is to-day being extensively made in 
handsome pieces for the furnishings of modern homes. 
You will find the 

Miniature Mission Furniture, illustrated and described 
in this chapter, simple to make and something which is 
easy to sell, for there is nothing like it at present upon 
the market. 

Cigar-boxes furnish the nicest material for making this 
furniture, and the various parts can be cut to the right 
shape and size with 



A Scroll-Saw. Procure small brads and glue with 
which to fasten the pieces together. 

To Prepare the Cigar-Boxes for use, place them in a tub 
of boiling water and let them remain there until the paper 
labels readily pull off. Do not use a knife in removing 
the paper, as it is likely to roughen the wood. The paper 
will come off by allowing it to soak long enough. When 
the boxes are clean, set them in the sun to dry, after bind- 
ing the covers to the backs to prevent them from warp- 
ing. Pull the boxes apart when they are thoroughly dry, 
and throw out such pieces as have printing upon them, for 
these would spoil the appearance of the furniture if used. 

In order to simplify the matter of cutting the parts 
that make the furniture, the curved pieces have been 
drawn out carefully on page 177, so that they can be laid 
off upon the strips of cigar-boxes without any trouble, by 
the process of 

Enlarging by Squares. These drawings are shown 
one-quarter of their full size (half their width and half 
their height). To enlarge them procure a piece of card- 
board nine by thirteen inches, or a little larger than twice 
the size of the drawing each way, and divide it into squares 
just twice the size of those on page 177. That will make 
sixteen squares in the width of the cardboard and twenty- 
four in the length, each half an inch square. In order to 
get the squares spaced equally, it is best to lay off the 
points first with a ruler along the top, bottom, and two 
sides of the sheet of cardboard, and then connect the 


points with the ruler and a sharp lead-pencil. Then 
number the squares as in the illustration, using the figures 
along the sides and letters across the top and bottom of the 

With the sheet of cardboard thus prepared it is a simple 
matter to 

Reproduce the Drawings of Figs. 259 to 266 by locating 
the points of the curves and corners of the pieces, as 
shown in the illustrations, in corresponding positions in 
the squares on your cardboard sheet. The curves may be 
drawn in by eye, after locating them with reference to 
their surrounding squares, but the surest way of enlarg- 
ing them accurately is by laying off the points where the 
curve strikes each horizontal and vertical line in the illus- 
tration, upon the enlarged drawing. These points can 
then be connected with a curved line. 

Make all of the lines heavy so they can be distinguished 
from your guide lines, and after carefully going over the 
drawing, comparing it with that on page 177 to see that 
no mistake has been made in locating the points in enlarg- 
ing, cut the various pieces apart. These will give you 

The Patterns with which to mark out the pieces on the 

We will first note the construction of 

The Chairs shown in Figs. 267 and 268. These are 
four and one-half inches high, two inches wide, and an 
inch and one-half deep. Cut the back for the chair in 
Fig. 267 four and three-eighths inches high and an inch 

K L M M O P Q. 


Figs. 259-266. — Patterns for Furniture. 

P Q~ 

i 7 8 


and three-quarters wide, the sides by the pattern in Fig. 
259 and the seat an inch and one-quarter by an inch and 
three-quarters. With the pieces cut out, fasten them 
together with brads and glue, placing the seat between 

Fig. 267. 


Fig. 268. 

the arms and back so that it is an inch and one-half above 
the base. 

Cut the back for the other chair (Fig. 268) four and 
one-half inches high by two inches wide, the seat an inch 
and a quarter by an inch and three-quarters, and the sides 
an inch and three-eighths wide by two and one-half high. 
To get the curve in the bottom edge of the side pieces, use 
the pattern in Fig. 259. 

The Settee (Fig. 269) should have its sides cut by the 
pattern of Fig. 260. Make the back piece three and three- 



quarters inches wide and 
three and one-quarter 
inches high, and the seat 
three and three-quarters 
inches by an inch and 
one-half. Fasten the seat 
against the back an inch 
and one-half above the 

Tables for the living- 
room, dining-room, bed- 
room, ball-room, and nurs- 
ery of a doll-house may 
be patterned after the de- 
signs of Figs. 270 and 271. 
These should be two and one 

Fig. 270.— A Table. 

Fig. 269. — A Settee. 

half inches high to be of proper 
proportion for the chairs. 

The pieces necessary to 
make Fig. 270 are a top 
two inches square, two sides 
an inch and one-half wide 
by two and one-half inches 
high, and a shelf an inch 
and one-quarter square. 
Fasten the pieces together as 
, in the illustration, placing the 
shelf between the side pieces 
an inch from the bottom. 



The other design (Fig. 271) will do nicely for 
A Dining-Room Table, or table for the center of the 
living-room. The top of this should be five inches long 
and three inches wide. Cut the side pieces by the pattern 
in Fig. 261 and, after fastening them to the under side of 
the table-top four inches apart, brace them with a strip 

three and three-quarters 
inches long by half an 
inch wide, as shown in 
Fig. 271. 

A Side-Board similar 
to Fig. 272 should be 
made for the dining- 
room. The pattern for 
the side pieces is shown 
in Fig. 262. After saw- 
ing these out, cut a piece 
seven inches long by three inches wide for the back and 
fasten the side pieces to the edges of it. The location 
of the shelves can be obtained best by referring to Fig. 
272 and the pattern in Fig. 262. Cut the bottom shelf 
(A in Fig. 272) three inches long by an inch and one- 
quarter wide and fasten it to the side pieces half an inch 
above the base (line 24 on pattern, Fig. 262). Make shelf 
B three by one inches and place it at line 22. C should be 
three and three-quarters inches long by an inch and one- 
half wide, with a small notch cut near each end with your 
knife, to make it fit over the side pieces (see illustration). 

Fig. 271. — Another Design. 



Cut shelf D three inches long by half an inch wide, fasten- 
ing it in place at line No. 17, E three inches long by seven- 
sixteenths of an inch wide, fastening it at line No. 15, and 
F three inches long by three- 
eighths of an inch wide, fasten- 
ing it at line No. 13. The top 
shelf (G) is three and three- 
quarters inches long and half 
an inch wide and is fastened 
to the tops of the side pieces 
as shown in the drawing. 

The lower portion of the 
side-board is inclosed with two 
doors two inches high by an inch 
and one-half wide. Small pieces 
of cloth may be used for hinges, 
but it is better to use pins, run- 
ning them through the shelf 
above and below (A and C, 
Fig. 272) into the doors. Stick 
the pins near the edge of the 
doors and see that they are 
straight, so the doors will open 
easily. A small mirror attached 
to the back between shelves C and D will complete this 
piece of furniture. 

A Mirror in a frame should be made for the living- 
room of the doll-house. A neat and suitable design for 

Fig. 272. — A Side-Board. 



one of these will be seen in Fig. 273. For its construc- 
tion cut two sides by means of the pattern in Fig. 263, a 
piece five inches long by three inches wide for the back, 
and a strip three inches long by three-eighths of an inch 
wide for a shelf. Fasten the sides to the edges of the 
back piece, and the shelf between the sides about three- 
quarters of an inch above the base. Now procure a mirror 
such as you can buy in a toy-shop for 
five or ten cents (or a piece of a 
broken mirror cut down to the right 
size will do very nicely), and attach it 
to the center of the back. 

The Grandfather's Clock (Fig. 274) 
makes an effective piece of furniture 
for the hall or living-room, and is 
easily made. Figure 264 shows the 
pattern for the front of this clock. 
The back is made the same, with the 
omission of the square opening cut in 
the front frame for the clock-face. Cut 

Fig. 273. -A Mirror. a block of WQod twQ by twQ by three _ 

quarters inches to fit between the frames at the top. 
After nailing the pieces together, procure a face from a 
toy watch, and fasten it in the opening made for it in the 
front frame. A button suspended by means of a piece 
of thread from a tack placed in the bottom of the block 
forms the pendulum. 

It will be unnecessary to give any suggestions for 



Kitchen Furniture, such as chairs and tables, for these 
can also be made out of cigar-box 
wood similar to the designs illus- 
trated in this chapter, with per- 
haps a few modifications which 
will make them simpler. 

Now for the making of some 
pieces of bedroom furniture. 
You will find in Figs. 275 and 
276 two designs that are easily 
carried out, one or both of which 
may be used for 

The Beds of a doll-house. To 
make Fig. 275, cut the head and 
foot by means of the pattern in 
Fig. 265, and cut the two sides 
by means of the pattern in Fig. 
266. After preparing these pieces 
and fastening them together as 
shown in the illustration (Fig. 
275), cut a few strips a quarter 
of an inch wide for slats and 
fasten them between the sides of 
the bed. It is advisable to fasten 
these in place to prevent them 
from being lost. 

The side pieces for the other 
bed (Fig. 276) are cut out with the same pattern (Fig. 266) 

Fig. 274. 
A Grandfather's Clock. 

1 84 


Make the head and foot pieces three by four and one-half 
inches, cutting a piece two by an inch and one-quarter out 

Fig. 275. — A Bed. 

of the top of each as shown in the drawing (Fig. 276), and 
using the pattern of the other bed for cutting the curve in 

Fig. 276. — Another Design. 



the bottom edge. Nail the pieces together in their proper 
places, after which cut some slats and fasten them in the 

The Dresser (Fig. 277) is made somewhat similar to 
the side-board. Cut the sides by 
the same pattern (Fig. 262) and 
fasten them to the edges of the 
back piece, which should be six 
and one-half inches high by three 
inches wide. Cut shelf A three 
by one and one-quarter inches, 
B and C three by one and one- 
eighth, D three by one and three- 
sixteenths, and E and F one-half 
by one and one-quarter inches. 
Fasten shelf A between the sides 
at line No. 24 (see Fig. 262), B 
at line No. 23, C at line No. 22, 
D at line No. 21, and notch the 
ends of E and F to fit over the 
side pieces at line No. 20. 

Drawers to fit the lower shelves 
of the dresser may be made out 
of small strips of cigar-boxes or 
pieces of cardboard, glued to- 
gether. A small mirror fastened in the position shown in 
the drawing will complete the work upon this piece of 

Fig. 277. — A Dresser. 

1 86 


A Wash-Stand can be made for the bathroom and each of 
the bedrooms similar to Fig. 278. The sides for this should 
be five inches high by an inch and one-quarter wide, and 
the shelves one by three inches. Fasten the lower shelf 
three-quarters of an inch above the base, and the top shelf 
at a height of two and one-half inches. When the stand 
has been put together, fit a round 
stick, about an eighth of an inch in 
diameter, in holes made in the sides 
with a gimlet (see illustration). This 
forms the towel-rack. Hang a small 
drapery over the lower portion of the 

Finishing. When the pieces of 
furniture have been completed, they 
should be rubbed down with emery- 
paper to remove the rough edges, 
and also any rough places that may 
have been caused by soaking the 
boxes in water. Then give the 
wood several coats of linseed-oil. This makes a beautiful 
finish for this kind of wood, which may be improved by 
adding a coat of wax. The little hearts may be painted 
upon the pieces as shown in the illustration, with a small 
brush and red paint, or may be cut out of red paper and 
glued to the wood. 

If desired, the bedroom furniture may be painted with 
white enamel. 

Fig. 278. — A Wash-Stand. 



Other Cigar-Box Furniture 

In Figs. 279 and 282 will be found some pieces of furni- 
ture that are simpler to make than those just described, 
and although they may not be so pretty, they present 
a very good appearance 
when neatly made. 

The author constructed 
many pieces of this fur- 
niture when a boy, and 
found them suitable as 
presents, and something 
that was always easy to 

The cost of making a set 
amounts to but a few cents, 
cigar-boxes being the prin- 
cipal material. They are 
also very quickly made, 
as the boxes require but 
little cutting. 

For the construction of 

A Folding-Bed, such as 
is shown in Figs. 279 and 280, select two cigar-boxes, one of 
which will fit inside the other. The smaller box should be 
a little shorter than the inside opening of the larger box. 
After removing the paper from each, place the smaller box 
inside the larger one, as shown in Fig. 279, so that the bot- 

Fig. 279. — A Doll's Folding-Bed. 



torn of the inner box is flush with the edge of the outer box. 
Then drive a brad through both boxes on each side, about 
three-quarters of an inch from the end as shown at A (Fig. 

l'IG. 281. — Foot. 

Fig. 280. — Folding-Bed (open). 

279). These brads should run through the outer box into 
the bottom of the inner box, and should be driven in carefully 
so as not to split the wood. The inner box should now fold 
down as shown in Fig. 280, moving upon the brad pivots. 



Purchase a five or ten cent mirror and fasten it to the front 
of the bed, after which cut two wooden feet similar to 
Fig. 281 and glue the pegs on the ends of these in gimlet 
holes made above the mirror. Finish the wood the same as 
described for the other cigar-box furniture. 

The Dresser shown in Fig. 282 is made out of a box the 
same size as the larger one used for the folding-bed. 

2. — Dresser Completed. 

Fig. 283. — A Doll's Dresser. 

Saw the sides of the box in half, crosswise, and remove 
the upper half and the end piece. Then nail the end across 
the tops of the remaining halves of the sides. When this 
has been done, divide up the lower portion of the box into 
compartments as shown in the drawing (Fig. 283). This 


should have a small drapery hung over it. The upper 
portion of the dresser should have a mirror attached to it, 
and some lace draped over the top and sides will add greatly 
to its appearance. 

All you will have to do in making 

A Wardrobe will be to fasten some small hooks inside of 
a cigar-box, attach the cover with a strip of linen — the 
same way it was attached before you soaked it off — and 
hang a mirror on the front. 

These pieces of furniture were designed for separate 
sets, and would not do for doll-houses the size of those in 
the preceding chapters, unless the boxes were cut down to 
smaller proportions. 


Cigar-boxes are splendid material for a variety of home- 
made toys. In this chapter are shown some easily con- 
structed wagons, a Jack-in-the-box, a cradle, and several 
tables and chairs of a different pattern from the doll 
furniture for which working drawings were given in the 
preceding chapter. 

Get an assortment of shapes and sizes of boxes at a 
cigar store, and prepare them for use as directed on page 
175. Use f inch and J inch brads, and glue, for fastening 
the pieces together. 

A scroll-saw, bracket-saw, coping-saw, or a very sharp 
jack-knife should be used where 

Cutting is necessary. Do not attempt to split the 
wood, as the grain is seldom straight, but lay it down upon 
a board and score it with a knife in the way in which you 
would score a piece of cardboard ; then break it along the 
scored line, or continue cutting until the piece is cut in 
two. If you use a saw, cut a little away from the outlines 
of the work and then trim up with a knife and sandpaper. 

The wagons, Jack-in-the-box, and doll furniture shown 
in this chapter were designed with the idea of saving as 



front axle I Rear Axle 


much cutting as possible, and you will see by the illus- 
trations that in many cases the boxes are not altered. 

The Express-Wagon shown in Fig. 284 is made out of 
a long flat box. Cut down the sides at the front and con- 
struct a seat on top of the sides as shown in Fig. 286. 
Cut the front wheels about i\ inches in diameter and the 
rear wheels about 2! inches in diameter. If you haven't a 
compass with which to describe the circles, you can mark 

out the wheels with cups or 
\T~ seat ~"77 gl ass tumblers. Cut the 

wooden axles as shown in Fig. 

286, making the front axle — 

for the smaller wheels — deeper 

than the rear one, then fasten 

them to the wagon and nail the 

wheels to their ends. Drive a 

tack into the front of the 

wagon-box and tie a cord to it, 

or, if you have a small toy horse to hitch to the wagon, 

fasten a pair of shafts to the under side of the box as is 

shown upon the two-wheel cart. 

The Cart in Fig. 285 is made out of a square flat box 
with its wheels fastened to the center of the under side. 
Make the wheels about 2§ inches in diameter. 

The Auto Delivery -Wagon (Figs. 287 and 288. See Front- 
ispiece) requires two boxes 8^ inches long, 5 inches wide, and 
2\ inches deep. You will see by the illustrations that one 
box is inverted upon the other. Before fastening them 


Fig. 286. — Cross-Section of the 

Fig. 285. 

Fig. 284. An Express-Wagon. 
Fig. 285. A Cart. 


together, remove the two ends of the upper box and the 
rear end of the lower box (leaving the front end for the 
dashboard), and cut 2 inches off the sides at the front and an 
additional piece 1 inch by if inches from the sides of the 
upper box for windows. Fasten the boxes together by 
nailing strips to the ends of side pieces. Nail a narrow strip 
across the top of the rear end of the wagon and hinge a 
drop end-gate to the wagon-bed with cloth strips. Sup- 
port the end-gate with a cloth strap. Tack a curtain of 
black cloth to the top cross strip and sew two cloth straps 
to the curtain, so that it may be fastened up in a roll, as 
shown in the photograph. Make the wheels and axles like 
those of the express wagon, but cut the front and rear 
wheels, also the two axles, of equal size. Cut out a small 
steering-wheel and fasten it on a short wooden rod inside of 
the dashboard. Make a seat and seat back, nail the back 
to the seat, and then fasten the seat between the sides 
of the wagon just below the windows. 

A Jack-in-the-box (Fig. 289) is a simpler toy to make 
than you might imagine. The box should measure about 
5! inches by 5! inches by 5 inches. Hinge the cover to 
the top with two pieces of heavy cloth ; glue one piece to 
the inside of the cover and box, and the other to the outside. 
Drive a small tack into the front edge of the cover, and 
below it fasten a small hook on to the box ; the hook may 
be bent from a short piece of wire. 

A spiral spring from an old bed-spring will do for Jack's 
body, but if you cannot get one of these it is a simple 



matter to make a spring. Take a piece of No. 12 gauge 
wire about 10 feet in length and wind it around a rolling- 
pin or anything that is cylindrical and about 2J inches in 
diameter. Fasten this spring with doubled-pointed tacks 
upon a piece of wood cut to fit the inside of the box (Fig. 
290), then procure a small doll's head, baste a circular piece 
of cardboard to the top of the spring and to this sew the 
head. Make a cloth fool's cap to 
glue on Jack's head, covering his 
hair entirely, and also a loose jacket 
to fit over his spiral body ; for these 
use any bright-colored cotton cloth 
that will fall into folds easily. Tack 
the base of the spring to the bottom 
of the box. 

Make the seat for 
The Round-Seated Chair shown in 
Fig. 291 2 inches in diameter, the 
back 5 inches high, 2 inches wide at 
the top, and i| inches wide at the seat ; cut the front leg 
2§ inches high by i| inches wide. 

The Round Center-Table (Fig. 292) should have a base 
built up of four strips as shown in Fig. 296. Cut the cir- 
cular top 5 inches in diameter. A saucer may be used 
with which to mark this out. 
Select a long flat box for 

The Dining-Table shown in Fig. 293, and after mak- 
ing four built-up legs as shown in Fig. 297 fasten them 

Fig. 297. 

Leg of Din 


Fig. 296. 

Pedestal of 


Fig. 289. 
A Jack-in-the-Box. 

Fig. 292. 
A Round Center-Table. 

FlG- 290.— The Skeleton of Fig. 294.— A Square-Seated Chair, 



into the four corners of the box table top with brads 
and glue. 

In making the little 

Square-Seated Chair (Fig. 294), cut the seat about 2 
inches wide by 2\ inches deep, the front legs 2\ inches high 
by f inch wide, and the back legs 4^ inches high by f inch 
wide. Brace the legs and back with crosspieces, and you 
will have a very firm and artistic dining-room chair. 

Select a box about 9 inches by 5 inches by 2\ inches in 
size for making 

The Doll's Cradle shown in Fig. 295. Cut the two 
rockers by the pattern in Fig. 
298 and fasten them to the 
bottom of the box 1 inch from \^ 
the ends. Use the rim of a 
breakfast plate in drawing the 

r , ■. t , ■. j Fig. 208. — Pattern for Cradle 

arc of the rockers ; then draw Rockers, 

the rounded ends, being care- 
ful to get them alike. Saw out the rockers very partic- 
ularly so as not to split off the ends. Fasten the pieces to 
the cradle box with brads driven through the box bottom 
into their top edge. 

After the cigar-box toys have been made, rub down the 
wood with fine sandpaper. Then drive all nail-heads below 
the surface, fill up the holes with putty stained to match 
the wood as nearly as possible, and finish with two coats of 
boiled linseed-oil. Apply the oil with a rag, then wipe off 
all surplus oil with a dry cloth. 



All that is required for making the little toys shown in 
this chapter are spools, cardboard, paper, a straight-grained 
stick out of which to cut pegs, some tacks, pins, and glue. 

Fig. 299. — Doll Carriage. 

Did you ever see a better model of 

A Baby Carriage than that shown in Fig. 299, with its 
rounded ends, arched bottom, and adjustable hood ? It is 
easy to make. 

Figure 300 shows the details for constructing the carriage 




body. Cut four wooden pegs to fit loosely in the holes of 
four spools of equal size, and make them of the right length 
so when slipped into the holes their ends will project about 
J inch beyond the spool ends. Then cut the bottom strip 
B 5 inches long by the width of the spools, bend it slightly 

Fig. 302 

Fig. 301 
Figs. 300-302. 

Details of Doll Carriage. 

as shown, to give a curve to the carriage bottom, and 
tack the ends of the strip to two of the spools (A). 

The sides C are of cardboard and should be i| inches 
wide at the widest point, by the length of the carriage body. 
Punch holes through these side pieces in the right places 
for the ends of the pegs in spools A to stick through. 

Before fastening the side pieces to spools A, you must 
attach the wheels (Figs. 301 and 302). Cut the cardboard 



uprights D 3^ inches long and J inch wide ; then after 
cutting holes through each near the ends, for the spool pegs 
to slip through, cut down the width between the holes to 
about J inch (Fig. 302). Slip the lower ends of uprights D 

Fig. 304 

Fig. 3°5 
Baby Carriage Hood. 
Diagram of Hood. 
Carriage Handles. 

over the pegs in spool wheels E, then the upper ends over 
the pegs in spools A. Glue the upper ends to the ends of 
spools A, then slip the carriage sides C over the pegs of 
spools A, and glue them in place. 

The carriage hood (Fig. 303 ) is made of a piece of stiff 
paper about 4J inches square (Fig. 304), slashed in three 


places along two opposite edges for a distance of about 
ij inches, and then folded over as indicated by dotted 
lines. Bring together the ends of the slashed edges of the 
piece of paper, as shown in Fig. 303, coat them with glue, 
and press together until the glue has dried. Punch a hole 
through each side of the top, as shown, for the projecting 
ends of the spool peg 
to slip through. 

The carriage 
handle is made of 
two cardboard strips 
(F, Fig. 305), and a 
match (G). Stick 
the match through 
holes made near the 
ends of strips F, and 
glue the lower ends 
of the strips to the 
inside face of the 
sides (Fig. 299). 
This completes the 

Fig. 307 

Fig. 306. —The Two-Wheel Cart. 
Fig. 307-309. — Details of Cart. 

The Two-Wheel Cart (Fig. 306) is made of a small box 
cover, and one of the spools on which crochet-cotton comes. 
Prepare a bent piece of cardboard like that shown in Fig. 
308, with ends A turned down at the proper points so there 
will be only room enough between them for the spool to 
turn freely. Punch a hole through each turned down end 



for a stick axle to run through. Then cut two slots through 
the box cover the same distance apart as ends A (Fig. 307), 

Fig. 31: 

Fig. 311 
Fig. 310. — Merry-go-round. Fig. 311. — Teeter. 

Fig. 312. — Cardboard Strip for Merry-go-round and Teeter. 

centering the pair both crosswise and lengthwise of the 

cover, and stick ends 
A through the slots 
and glue portion B 
to the cover. Cut 
the wheel axle 
enough smaller than 
the spool hole so 
the spool will turn 
easily, then push it 
through the hole in 
the spool and the 

Fig. 313. — Boy and Girl Riders for Merry-go- 
round and Teeter, holes in ends A. 


- Fig- 3i5 

Glue the end of a cardboard strip to the under side of the 
cover for a shaft. 

The Toy Merry-go-round in Fig. 310 consists of a strip of 
heavy cardboard turned up at its ends (Fig. 312), tacked at 
its center to the end of a stick cut small enough to turn 
easily in the hole in a spool. 

The spool slipped over 
the stick is grasped by the 
right hand, and the left 
hand starts the merry-go- 
round and keeps it in mo- 
tion by twirling the stick to 
which the cardboard strip 
is fastened. 

The boy and girl riders, 
shown in Fig. 313 are of the 
right size so you can trace 
them off upon a piece of 
tracing-paper and then 
transfer to cardboard. 
After cutting them out of 
the cardboard, color both 
sides with crayons or water-colors, and glue them to the 
turned-up ends of the cardboard strip. 

The Teeter-Board (Fig. 311) is made of the same kind 
of a strip as that used for the merry-go-round (Fig. 312). 
Tack this strip at its center to the side of a spool, and mount 
the spool in a cardboard frame in the same way that the 

Fig. 314 

Fig. 314. —Doll Swing. 
Fig. 315. — Detail of Swing. 



spool wheels of the cart are mounted (Figs. 308 and 309) ; 

but make the peg axle to fit tight 
in the spool hole. Prepare a boy 
and girl rider similar to those made 
for the merry-go-round (Fig. 313). 
The teeter is operated by turn- 
ing the end of the spool axle first 
one way then the other. 

The Doll Swing shown in Fig. 
314 has a cardboard base, with two 
spools fastened to it 4 inches apart 
to support the framework. Tack 
the base to the ends of the spools. 
The framework uprights are tightly 
rolled tubes of paper 10 or 12 
inches long, and the top crosspiece 
is another paper tube 4 inches long. Stick the lower 
ends of the uprights into the spool holes ; then fasten 
the crosspiece to 
their tops by run- 
ning pins through 
it and into the up- 
right ends (Fig. 
315), and then 
lashing the connec- 
tions with thread as 
shown in Fig. 314. 

The swing seat is made of a spool with a cardboard 

Fig. 317 

Figs. 316 and 317. — Details of 

Swing Seat. 

Fig. 31 



back fastened to it (Figs. 316 and 317). Suspend the 
spool with thread from the top of the swing crosspiece. 

A Sofa with arm 
rolls, like that shown 
in Fig. 318, is a good 
example of what can 
be made in spool- 
and-cardboard doll 
furniture. Prepare 
the seat and back out 
of a single piece of 
cardboard, curving the top and ends of the back as shown, 
and making the width of the seat the same as the length 
of the spool arms. Fasten the spools by means of a strip 

Fig. 320 
Figs. 319-321. — Details of Sofa. 

Fig. 321 

Fig. 323 

Square Center-Table. 

Fig. 322. 

Fig. 324. — Round Center-Table. 


of paper bent over them as shown in Fig. 320, and 
glued to the seat. Use small silk-thread spools (Fig. 
321) for feet, and glue them to the seat at the four 

The Chair (Fig. 322) has a seat and back made out of a 


single piece of cardboard, with one-third of its length bent 
out for the seat. Glue the seat to a spool base. 

The Square Center-Table (Fig. 323) has a crochet- 
cotton spool pedestal, and its top is a square piece of card- 
board. Glue the spool to the exact center of the top. 

The Round Center-Table (Fig. 324) is made similarly. 
Use the rim of a cup for marking out the circular top. 

With a little ingenuity you will be able to devise a great 
many other pieces of doll furniture, and other toys as well. 


Who wants to play at being Uncle Sam, and have a 
postal system right in the house, or out on the front porch 
where it will be convenient for the children next door to 
enjoy it, too ? Every small boy and girl loves to play 
postman, collect mail from the toy mail-box, cancel the 
stamps, sort out the letters into the proper routes, and 
then deliver them to those whom they are addressed to. 

The mail-box shown in Figs. 325 and 326 is easily made, 
and with 

The Working Material on hand can be completed in an 
evening. Two sheets of cardboard, a piece of muslin, 
some silver paper or paint, a piece of tape about 2 yards 
long, and a needle and thread, are required. The card- 
board should be stiff enough to hold its shape, and yet be 
of light enough weight to cut and fold easily. Sheets 22 
inches by 28 inches can be bought at any printing-shop, 
and at some stationery stores, and will not cost more than 
10 cents a sheet at the most. If you have some large card- 
board boxes, however, you can use them instead by so laying 
out the different parts that the corners of the boxes will 
come in the right places for the corners of the mail-box. 




Figure 327 shows the diagrams for 

Making the Sides, Ends, and Bottom of the mail-box, 
with the dimensions of every portion marked upon them. 

Fig. 328 













^f" in 






Fig. 329 

Fig. 330 


7$ -k\l 




BACK . ! 



— - 

Fig. 327 



Fig. 327. — Diagram for Making Sides, Ends, and Bottom of Mail-Box. 

Fig. 328. — Diagram for Making Top. 

Fig. 329. — Diagram for Making End Pieces of Letter-Drop. 

Fig. 330. — Diagram for Making Front Piece of Letter-Drop. 

Use a ruler with which to guide your pencil in drawing the 
straight lines, and a compass or the rim of a 9-inch plate 
for describing the arcs for the round tops of the end pieces. 
You will see that the front, one end, and the bottom are 



made in one piece, and that the back, other end, and a 
second bottom (to make that portion doubly strong) are 
cut from another piece. 

The dotted lines upon 
the diagram indicate where 
the cardboard should be 
folded. Figure 331 shows 
the sides, ends, and bot- 
tom folded ready to be 
put together. Turn the 
flaps inside, and glue them 
to the end pieces, and glue 
the two bottom pieces to- 
gether ; also sew the card- 
board with a double thread to make the joining doubly secure. 

The Top of the Box — the diagram for the cutting of 

which is shown in 

Fig. 331. — The Sides, Ends, and Bottom, 
folded ready to be put Together. 

Fig. 332 

Fig. 333 

Fig. 335 

Fig. 332. — Top, showing how Portion is Bent up 

for Back of Letter-Drop. 
Fig. 333. — Ends of Letter-Drop. 
Fig. 334. — Front of Letter-Drop. 
Fig. 335. — Top, with Letter-Drop Completed. 

Fig. 328 — has a 
piece 3 by 7 inches 
cut out on all but one 
long side, and bent 
up to form the top of 
The Letter-Drop 
(Fig. 332). The dia- 
gram for the ends of 
the letter-drop is 

shown in Fig. 329, and for the front in Fig. 330; Fig. 333 
shows how cloth flaps are glued to the end piece ; and Fig. 



Fig. 336 

335 shows how the end pieces are fastened to the top of 
the box by means of these flaps. Glue a strip of cloth to 
each side of the lower edge of the letter-drop front piece 
for hinges (Fig. 334), and glue one to the inside and the 
other to the outside of the top of the box (Fig. 335). 
Attach rubber-bands to the front and ends of the drop 

to make it 
spring shut. 
Glue and sew 
the top of the 
box to the flaps 
provided on 
the front and 
back for the 

Figure 336 
shows the dia- 
gram for 

The Collec- 
tion-Drop, and 
Fig. 337 how 
it looks folded. 

Hinge the drop to the box with a cloth strip (Fig. 338). 
Reinforcement. When the work has been finished thus 
far, cut a number of strips of muslin 1 inch wide and rein- 
force the corners with them. Then take the 2-yard length 
of tape, which you procured, and sew it to the back of the 
box to hang it up by. 

Fig- 337 Fig. 338 

Fig. 336. — Diagram for Making Collection-Drop. 
Fig. 337. — How the Collection-Drop is Folded. 
Fig. 338. — The Collection-Drop Hinged in Place. 


Covering the Box. Silver paper makes the nicest 
finish for the mail-box, and can be bought of a stationer ; 
but you may paint the cardboard with aluminum radiator 
paint instead if you prefer. If you use silver paper, stick 
it on with flour paste. 

After the paper or paint has dried, paste 

A Collection Schedule Card upon the front of the box. 
You will need, also, to 

Letter the words, " Pull Down," " Letters," etc., where 
they are shown in the illustrations. 

Hang up the Mail-Box by means of its tape strap, within 
easy reach, upon the face of a door (Fig. 325), or to the back 
of a chair (Fig. 326). 

For a Mail-Bag use a school-book bag, or make one just 
like a real postman's out of brown denim or cambric. 
Letter " U. S. Mail " upon the bag with black paint, or 
cut the letters from black or white muslin and glue them in 
place. Provide a long strap to reach over the postman's 

The Way to Play Post-Office is for several children to 
attend to the writing of letters and wrapping of parcels, 
another to play mail clerk, who puts the post-marks on the 
mail and sorts it out into " routes " and another to play 

Canceled stamps from old letters may be re-used on the 
play letters, and a rubber-stamp dater such as they sell at 
the stationer's for 10 cents may be used for printing the 



This reflecting lantern, shown completed in Fig. 339, 
is more magical in its operation than a magic-lantern is, 

because, instead of 

Fig- 340 V 

Fig. 339 

Fig. 339. — The Complete Reflectoscope. 
Fig. 340. — Detail of Ventilator Top. 

projecting through 
transparent slides, 
it reflects opaque 
pictures. That 
makes it possible 
to use magazine 
and newspaper 
pictures, post 
cards, and photo- 
graph prints. 
You may reflect a 
greatly enlarged 
picture of the 
movements of your 
watch, and by plac- 
ing your face 
against the open- 

ing in the reflectoscope, you may show a view of your 



Fig. 341. — Plan of Refiectoscope. 

mouth opening and closing, giant size. The ease with 

which slides are obtained makes this a desirable lantern 

to own. 

The Material. You 

must get a box about 

10 by 10 by 20 inches 

in size for the case of 

the refiectoscope, two 

oil-lamps, or two 16 

or 32 candle-power 

electric lamps with 

the parts necessary 

for connecting them to the electric lighting circuit, three 

1 -lb. baking-powder cans and two tomato cans, two pieces 

of tin about 6 by 10 
inches in size, and a 
lens from a camera, 
field glass, opera glass, 
magic-lantern or bicy- 

The bottom of the 
box will be the front 
of the refiectoscope. 

Cut the Lens Open- 
ing through this, at 
the center of its length, 

and a trifle above the center of its width. Make the hole 

a trifle larger than the lens. 




Fig. 342. — Cross-section of Refiectoscope. 


Cut Ventilator Holes 3 inches in diameter through the 
uppermost side of the box, near to the ends and bottom. 

Figures 341 and 342 show 

The Interior Arrangement of the rerlectoscope. Place 
the lamps in the corners of the box, next to the front, and 
tack in back of them the pieces of tin for reflectors (A, 
Figs. 341 and 342). Bend the reflectors to the curve shown. 

If Oil Lamps are Used, their tops will project through the 
ventilation holes, as shown in Fig. 342. These openings 
must be inclosed with 

A Hood which will Conceal the Light, yet allow the heat 
to escape. The most satisfactory arrangement is that 
shown in Figs. 339 and 342. A baking-powder can with 
its bottom removed (B) is slipped over the lamp chimney 
and fitted into the ventilation hole; then a tomato-can 
(C) is inverted over the top of the can and fastened in the 
slotted ends of three wooden peg stilts (D, Fig. 340), and 
the pegs are fitted into holes made in the top of the box 
(Figs. 339 and 342). Fasten the can in the slots of the 
stilts with tacks (Fig. 340). 

If Electric Light is Used, the hooded ventilators may be 
omitted. Any boy who understands the wiring of electric- 
lamp sockets, plugs, and drop-cord will know how to wire 
up the rerlectoscope. 

Mount the Lens in a can or mailing-tube jacket (Fig. 
343). If you use a can, remove the bottom. If the lens 
is smaller in diameter, make a band of cardboard strips to 
fit around the edge, as shown in Fig. 344, and glue these 



strips to the inside of the can or mailing-tube. The lens 
jacket should fit loosely enough in the reflectoscope box 
opening so it will slide back and forth for focusing. Make a 
tin collar to fit around the jacket, and tack it to the front 
of the box, to pre- 
vent light from es- 
caping (Fig. 339). 

Before putting on 
the back of the 
reflectoscope box, 

Putty up all 
Cracks between 
the boards in the 
top and front, to 
make the box 
light-tight ; then 

Paint the Inside 
of the Box and 
the cover boards 
with lamp-black 
thinned with tur- 
pentine, so there 
will be no reflec- 
tions other than those produced by the lamp reflectors and 
the picture. 

Nail the Back Boards in Place, leaving an opening about 
7 inches square directly opposite the lens. Cut a piece 
of board to fit this opening (E, Fig. 345) for 

Fig. 346 

Fig. 344 

Figs. 343 and 344. — Details of Lens Mounting. 
Fig. 345. — View of Back of Reflectoscope. 
Fig. 346. — Detail of Post Card Holder. 


The Picture Holder, and hinge it in place. A frame for 
post cards to slide in should be fastened to the picture 
holder, as shown in Fig. 346. First nail strips F to board 
E, then tack strips G to them so their edges project over 
strips F. A little wooden button (H, Fig. 345) will fasten 
the holder board shut while each picture is being projected. 

The Lens Reverses Pictures in projecting them, and in 
order to have them projected right-side up on the screen it 
is necessary to slip them into the holder frame upside down. 

Adjustments. After you have built your reflectoscope, 
you may find it does not throw sharply-defined images upon 
your projection screen. In that case you must readjust the 
focus of the lens, the curve of the lamp reflectors, and 
the distance between the lens and the projection screen, 
until the best possible results are obtained. Inasmuch as 
the positions will vary with different lenses, it is impossible 
for me to give any hard and fast measurements. You 
will have to determine the distances yourself. 

The stronger the light, the brighter the projected image 
will be ; therefore, use the strongest light you can get, and 
place the lantern not more than five feet away from the screen. 

Unless you use an anastigmat lens such as the better 
grade of cameras are fitted with, you will discover that the 
corners of pictures are indistinct when you have brought 
the centers to a sharp focus. This indistinctness can be 
corrected to a great extent by blocking out the holder to 
curve the post cards and other pictures so that the ends 
are closer to the lens than the center is. 


Airships," clockwork "flying, 102. 
Animal targets for toy shooting gallery, 

Apartment building, doll, 165. 
Automobile, clockwork, 104. 
Automobile delivery wagon, clockwork. 

112; cigar-box, 192. 


Baby carriage, doll, 196. 
Ballast, toy elevator, 63. 
Balusters, doll-house stairway, 154. 
Battery, a bi-chromate of potash, 135. 
Bead portieres, doll- house, 157. 
Beds, doll-house, 183, 187. 
Bi-chromate battery fluid, 136. 
Boat, toy motor-, 33. 
Box-kite, 12. 

Bridle, Malay kite, 12; box-kite, 16. 
Buzz-saw whirligig, 71. 

Cables, toy elevator, 61, 69; electro- 
magnet derrick, 123. 

Cardboard toys, 196. 

Carpets, doll -house, 157. 

Carriage, doll baby, 196. 

Cars, toy railway, 50; gondola, 52; 
street, 52; other forms of, 56; eleva- 
tor, 60, 68, 150; Ferris wheel, 99. 

Cart, cigar-box, 192 ; cardboard, 199. 

Chairs, cigar-box, 176, 194, 195; card- 
board, 203. 

Chauffeur for clockwork automobile, 111. 

Cigar-boxes, to prepare, for use, 175. 

Cigar-box toys, 191. 

Clock, a grandfather's, 182. 

Clock wheel top, 81. 

Clockwork automobile, 104. 

Clockwork automobile delivery wagon, 

Clockwork Ferris wheel, 96. 
Clockwork "flying airships," 102. 
Clockwork merry-go-round, 89. 
Clockwork motors, 89, 97; increasing 

speed of, 103. 
Clockwork railway, 116. 
Clockwork toys, 88. 
Clog-dancer, toy, 72. 
Control, toy elevator, 65. 
Cosey-corner, doll-house, 158. 
Counter-balance, 61, 69. 
Cradle, doll's, 195. 
Cricket-rattle, 75. 
Curtains, doll-house, 157. 


Decorating, doll-house, 156; doll apart- 
ment, 173. 

Delivery-wagon, clockwork automobile, 
112 ; cigar-box, 192. 

Derrick, electro-magnet, 117. 

Doll apartment building, 165. 

Doll-house, 145 ; furnishing the, 156. 

Dresser, doll, 185, 189. 

Egg-beater motor-winder, 31. 

Electrical toys, 117. 

Electric motor truck, toy, 132. 




Electro-magnet, 118. 

Electro-magnet derrick, 117. 

Elevator, model aeroplane, 25. 

Elevators, toy, 59. 

Elevator, toy office building, 59; an 

outdoor, 67 ; doll-house, 148. 
Enlarging by squares, 175. 
Express-wagon, cigar-box, 192. 

Feed-hoist, toy stable, 163. 

Feed-troughs, toy stable, 162. 

Ferris wheel, clockwork, 96. 

Fin, model aeroplane, 26. 

Fireplace, doll apartment, 171. 

Fixtures, doll apartment lighting, 171. 

Floors, toy office building, 59; hard- 
wood, for doll-house, 157. 

"Flying airships," clockwork, 102. 

Flying-line for kites, 12. 

Folding-bed, doll, 187. 

Furniture, cigar-box, 174, 194; card- 
board, 203. 

Fuselage, model aeroplane, 22. 

Gable-ends, doll-house, 151 ; toy stable, 

Garage, toy (see Stable). 
Gondola car, 52. 
Grandfather's clock, 182. 
Guides, toy elevator, 61, 69, 150. 


Hand-rail, doll-house stairway, 153. 
Horses for merry-go-round, cardboard, 

86, 92. 
House, doll-, 145 ; furnishing the doll-, 

156; doll apartment, 165; furniture 

for doll-, 174, 194, 203. 

Induction-coil, 126. 
Interrupter, shocking-machine, 



Jack-in-the-box, cigar-box, 193. 

Jumping-Jack, 74. 

Jumping- Jack operated by windmill, 7. 


Kite, a Malay, 9; a box-, 12. 
Kite-reel, a hand, 17 ; a body, 19. 

Launching a model aeroplane, 31. 
Lighting fixtures, doll apartment, 171. 


Magnet, electro-, 118. 

Mail-bag, toy, 209. 

Mail-box, toy, 205. 

Malay kite, 9. 

Mantel, doll apartment, 171. 

Mechanical toys, 71. 

Merry-go-round, top, 85 ; clockwork, 

89; cardboard, 201. 
Mirror, doll-house, 181. 
Mission furniture, doll, 174. 
Model aeroplane, 21 ; propellers for, 27; 

motors for, 29; motor-winder for, 31 ; 

launching a, 31. 
Motor-boat, toy, 33. 
Motors, clockwork, 89, 97; increasing 

speed of, 103. 
Motors, model aeroplane, 29; winder 

for, 31. 
Motors, water- (see Water-Motor). 
Motor, toy motor-boat, 37. 
Motor truck, toy electric, 132. 
Motor-winder, egg-beater, 31. 

Newel-post, doll-house stairway, 153. 


Office building elevator, toy, 59. 



Partitions, toy office building, 60; doll- 
house, 145 ; stable stall, 162. 

Pictures, doll-house, 158. 

Pinion-wheel windmill, 2. 

Pinwheel, a paper, 1. 

Pistol, toy, card-shooting, 143. 

Planes, model aeroplane, 24. 

Portieres, doll-house, 157. 

Post-office with mail-box, to play, 209. 

Primary coil, induction-coil, 127. 

Propeller-shaft, model aeroplane, 29 ; 
toy motor-boat, 35. 

Propellers, model aeroplane, 27. 

Propeller, toy motor-boat, 35. 

Pulley-wheel, 42, 45, 62, 151. 


Race-track, spinning- top, 82. 

Railway, toy, 47 ; trolley-line for, 47 ; 
power for, 49; tracks for, 50; cars 
for, 50; gondola car for, 52; street 
car for, 52 ; other cars for, 56 ; opera- 
tion of, 56; station for, 57; clock- 
work, 116. 

Rattle, cricket, 75. 

Reel, a hand kite-, 17; a body kite-, 19. 

Reflectoscope, 210. 

Riders for merry-go-round, 86, 94. 

Risers, doll-house stairway, 153. 

Rugs, doll-house, 157. 

Rug-tack top, 82. 


Secondary-coil, induction-coil, 127. 

Settee, doll, 178. 

Shocking machine, 124. 

Shoe-polish can top, 83. 

Shooting gallery, toy, 140. 

Side-board, doll, 180. 

Sleighs for merry-go-round , cardboard , 93 . 

Sofa, doll, 203. 

Spinning- top race-track, 82. 

Spiral top, 85. 

Spool and cardboard toys, 196. 

Spool top, 82. 

Stable, toy, 160. 

Stairway for doll-house, 152, 154. 

Station for toy railway, 57. 

Straw portieres, doll-house, 158. 

Street car, toy, 52. 

Swing, doll, 202. 

Switch, electro-magnet derrick, 121. 

Tables, cigar-box, 179, 180, 194; card- 
board, 204. 

Tack top, 82. 

Targets, toy shooting gallery, 142. 

Teeter-board, 201. 

Thrust bearings, 23, 35. 

Top, clockwork, 81 ; rug- tack, 82 ; 
spool, 82; spinning, racetrack, 82; 
shoe-polish can, 83; spiral, 85; 
merry-go-round, 85. 

Tops, 79. 

Track, spinning- top race, 82. 

Tracks, toy railway, 50. 

Treads, doll-house stairway, 153. 

Trolley-line, toy railway, 47. 

Troughs, toy stable feed-, 162. 

Truck, toy electric motor, 132. 

Turtle toy, 76. 


Varnish-can water-motor, 38. 


Wagon, cigar-box express-, 192. 

Wardrobe, doll, 190. 

Wash-stand, doll, 186. 

Water-motor, a varnish-can, 38 ; another 

form of, 42. 
Wheel, clockwork Ferris, 96. 
Wheel, water-motor, 39, 43. 
Whirligig, a buzz-saw, 71. 
Winder, model aeroplane motor-, 31. 
Windlass, electro-magnet derrick, 123. 
Windmill, a paper, 1 ; a pinion-wheel, 2 ; 

a four-blade, 4 ; an eight-blade, 5 ; 

jumping-Jack operated by a, 7. 
Window-shades, doll-house, 157. 




MAR 2 2 1930